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Currently I'm trying to use a compose key myself. The windows key on the right is a good option as you probably never use it anyway.
- You can type ç by: compose, (comma), c
- You can type ş by: compose, (comma), s
- You can type ı by: compose, i, (dot)
- You can type İ by: compose, I, (dot)
If you're on Windows, a compose key application can be found here.
Otherwise, just switch your keyboard layout to US-international, which let's you produce characters by AltGr combinations, but I don't know if it is complete.
What I've done in the past with German, French, Yiddish/Hebrew, Spanish, and Polish, is set my Windows to have a Ctrl+Shift+[Number] as a keystroke for each language's keyboard layout. I use it to quickly toggle between whichever layout I want. I haven't (yet!) checked to see if there's a Turkish keyboard layout, but it may become my Ctrl+Shift+6 hotkey stroke.
Use "Keyboards" under I think it's "Region and Time" to check the settings to set your keystroke preferences to toggle.
In many language courses, e.g French, Spanish, and Italian (I say those because I notice you've studied them) it'll count those as correct, but have the guide say "pay attention to the accents!"
From what you're explaining, are you saying that to a Turkish person comparing those two letters is akin to us comparing "a" vs "b" where there's absolutely no connection other than looking similar? I guess a better example might be "i" vs "j" because they both have a tittle.
Just trying to differentiate whether we're talking about accents or entirely, completely unrelated letters that just coincidentally look similar.
I and İ (or their lowercase counterparts, ı and i, respectively) are two separate letters in Turkish, and constitute two of the total of eight vowels found in the language. Despite the visual resemblance, these two letters are not accented versions of a single sound, nor do they sound that similar to one another.
The dotted İ/i is the same sound as the "i" in pin, win, sing, etc. Very straightforward.
The undotted I/ı is a sound that is not found in the English alphabet, but it is found in the pronunciation of certain English words. For example, if we were to write the word "Britain" the way it would be pronounced, but only using Turkish letters, it would be "Britın". Another example would be the verb "to pardon". Using Turkish letters to approximate the English pronunciation, this would be spelled "pardın". So the closest approximation is an "uh"-like sound. A last example would be the word "nation", which would become "neyşın". (It's tough to give examples without letting slip some other new material in. You'll notice that I also dropped in the new letter "ş", which has a "sh" sound, as found in "short", which in Turkish would become "şort")
As is the case with all Turkish letters, they are pronounced consistently, i.e. absolutely the same no matter where they appear in a word. This is in contrast to English, for example, where "i" can be "ee" as in "win", or "ai" as in "ireland", among others.
Careful: Sing does not sound like pin and win. "Sing" can have the "ee" sound, I have not heard "win" with that sound except from foreigners. http://englishspeaklikenative.com/resources/american-english-ipa/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet_chart_for_English_dialects
Yes, my dictionary does indicate that these three words all have the short ' i ' sound, but there is often a slight difference in the words that end with 'ng' as opposed to the words that end in 'n'. I am from California. Try saying sin and add g then say sing and tell me if your vowel does not change at all. A good example is the word singe versus sing. Oddly singe has the short 'i' sound even though it ends with an 'e'.
Phonemically, the words do indeed have the same vowel sound, but phonetically they are different.
Dictionaries usually write down the phonemes (distinctive sounds); slightly altered sounds caused automatically by their environment (e.g. a following -n versus a following -ng) are usually not marked as native speakers make those adjustment automatically and often unconciously.
In my dialect (I'm from Ontario, Canada; native English speaker), the words "Britain" and "pardon" do not have a vowel nucleus in the positions you indicate here: [ˈbɹɪt̚.ʔn̩] [ˈpaɹd̚.n̩]. And in my dialect, the word "nation" uses what you describe as Turkish's dotted-i vowel in this position: [ˈneɪ̯.ʃɪn]. This has the unfortunate consequence of rendering your explanation very ambiguous to me. lol. I'm sure your explanation was probably very helpful to some other people, though. Don't get me wrong.
Also, you say "where [English] "i" can be seen as "ee" as in "win"..."
I don't know of any English dialect that does that. Maybe somewhere in Scotland or something, but I'm pretty sure this is wrong for at least 90% of English dialects.
So "içmek" means "to drink" But "drink" is "iç" Just don't use the "mak" and "mek" Other examples: Yazmak- to writeYaz- write Oynamak- to playOyna- play Kesmek- to cut_Kes- cut If you wanna use it in a negative form use "me" or "ma" Okumak- to readOku- readOkuma- don't read Kaçmak- to runKaç- runKaçma- don't run Söylemek- to tellSöyle- tell___Söyleme- don't tell
As a noun or adjective, iç means "inside" or "interior".
As a verb, içmek means "to drink" and iç! is the imperative or command form of that verb.
So you have two words that look the same: a noun and a verb.
Many languages have words that look the same even if they are not similar, e.g. "like" in English ("He sings like your cat" -- preposition; "We like your cat" -- verb).