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Si lo piensas en español es muy sencillo. Teşekkürler puede ser gracias (formal and informal situations). Teşekkür ederim puede ser le agradezco o agradezco a usted (formal situations and I would say very formal too but it is simply formal) o bien, te agradezco (informal situations) y también puede ser gracias. Ambas pueden intercambiarse en ambas situaciones.
"Ederim" comes from the root "et", meaning "to make happen".
Remember "içerim" (I drink) from the previous lessons? It is constructed as iç+er+im, with the iç being the root, -er making simple present and -im making first person singular.
Same here. Et+er+im (I make happen). Note that the hard "t" became a soft "d". This is a rule/lesson you'll learn later.
Now, back to the word at hand.
"Teşekkür" means "appreciation".
"Teşekkür ederim", thus means "I [hereby] make [my] appreciation happen". Thus the formality.
"Teşekkürler", on the other hand, translates as "appreciations", i.e. thanks.
Teşekkürler or Teşekkür ederim are the most formal of all. Sağol is more casual and friendly. You wouldnt be disrespectful if you use it for your boss or teacher, though you will need to use it as Sağolun. This is plural, when plural is used for adressing one person it is more respectful. Eyvallah might be religious or casual depending on the tone and context. This is more for close friends, should -almost- never use it to a superior, or stranger. If you want to be perceived as a carefree, relaxed person, then you might use it to random strangers or potential friends. But be careful with it, you might also be perceived agressive depending on the tone.