"O içer."

Translation:He drinks.

March 23, 2015

123 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/czczczczcz

So there's literally no such thing as gender in Turkish and the imperative is just the root? This is looking easier and easier with every passing moment.

March 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/burak.duolingo

Famous last words :)

April 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Sam_Sarsik

what is the difference between O içer and O içiyor ? when to use each of them ?

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Selcen_Ozturk

o içer- he drinks (general) / o içiyor- he is drinking (right now)

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Sam_Sarsik

Thanks i got it , so is that looks like the difference between present simple tense and present continuous tense ?

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Selcen_Ozturk

yes, just like in English. We tend to "overuse" present continuous though, especially in daily speech.

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Sam_Sarsik

got it , thanks a lot .

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/seelian

what is the different ye & yer, iç & içer?

May 8, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Selcen_Ozturk

Ye! and İç! are commands (imperative) like English eat! and drink!

yer and içer are present simple conjugations for 3rd person he/she/it eats and drinks

May 8, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/seelian

Is there any note to refer the conjugations? the tips and note didn't show this. =(

May 8, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lucaturilli

içerim-i drink içersin-you drink(singular) içer-he/she/it drinks içeriz-we drink içersiniz-you drink(plural) içerler-they drink note: you can only say ''içerler'' when you are talking about just humans. otherwise you would say içer. example:Women drink-Kadınlar içerler/içer Birds drink-Kuşlar içer. Although ''Kuşlar içerler.'' is technically wrong in daily speech, they would use it.

May 27, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Akash_Polyglot

Why er is used in iç ...is there any sussfix rule

September 23, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BrandonKruse

So the 'c' with the cedilla under it isn't pronounced like a 's' like in French?

April 3, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Selcen_Ozturk

no, it is like ch in chair

April 12, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dosadnizub

"he smokes" should also be accepted?

March 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BoUnDLeSS_724

"He smokes" means "O sigara içer".

April 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/burak.duolingo

If there is an established context, then yes, it would be acceptable. For example,

  • I smoke daily. What about John? Do you know if he smokes?
  • Yes. He smokes.

In this conversation, it would be acceptable for the second person's reply (i.e. "he smokes") to be translated as "o içer".

April 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/tim5056

Why not iç?

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dragan17a

The same reason it isn't called "he eat" in English.

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Bush6984

So it's just the corresponding conjugation for the 3rd person then?

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Selcen_Ozturk

"iç" is only imperative, command.

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/tu.8zPhLD72zzoZN

Yes, "O içer" is the 3rd person conjugation in Turkish for "he eats" or "she eats" or "it eats".

October 1, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Bush6984

I got this one on the "type what you hear" and to my untrained ear it sounds more like "o icAr" than "o icEr." I know many languages in their spoken version tend to vary from what we're used to seeing from the letters' pronunciations. Is there a consistent pattern with the Turkish language where if x comes before the "e" and y comes after it, it tends to be pronounced more like an "a"?

Another area I've noticed this is the recording of "erkek" sounds more like "uhkuk." Is this a common pattern that "er" becomes pronounced more like "uh" than an "enunciated" "eRRRR"?

In short, what is the written-to-spoken trend?

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/gypsybird

What I have noticed is that the letter "e" is usually pronounced like the "e" in the English word "bet", but sometimes, it sounds more like the "a" in the English word "bat". In Azerbaijani, another Turkic language, they use the letter "ə" to represent this sound (I think the international symbol is /æ/) and make the distinction between a pure "e", and the "ə", which is closer to the "a" in "hat". The word for "you" in Turkish is "sen" but in Azerbaijani, it's "sən". Anyway, what I'm trying to say is that I also noticed some variation in the way the "e" is pronounced in Turkish, sometimes. :)

Also, the letter "r" is much softer than in Spanish to my ears, and it certainly doesn't sound like the Spanish "rr". It's not really trilled, it sounds more like it's whispered. And in some cases, it actually sounds like the English "r".

Last thing I noticed, the letter "v" is also very soft... Sometimes, it almost sounds like an English "w", but not quite... Anyway, these are just my impressions... I'm neither a native speaker nor a linguist. :)

Edit: Oh and by the way, I'm not basing this on the speech engine... I'm talking about what I hear when I listen to people.

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/onurgur1

For the most cases Turkish is spoken just as it is written, similar to Spanish etc. For the case of 'icer' the recording is saying the -er part too fast. Usually we would stress the 'e' just a little to let people know we say an 'e' and not 'a' or any other letter.

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MarksAaron

The pattern I've been picking up is that 'e' sounds more like [æ] when before 'r'. Need to hear more examples though.

July 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Also before "n", I think, as in "öğretmen", sounds a bit like "öğret-man" with an English "man".

July 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MarksAaron

Ah, totally! Just noticed that. Yeah, before 'n' seems to be [æ] also. Have a lingot :)

July 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/anloztrk

E is pronounced like the 'a' in 'cat' if it comes before one of the letters l/m/n/r and that consonant isn't followed by another vowel. In addition, the vowel in the third person aorist suffix '-mez' is also pronounced with an 'a' sound. In other positions, it sounds like the 'e' in 'bet'.

January 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dittocrystal

How would you know if "o" refers to "he", "she", or "it"?

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/deti1959

it is not important. "He drinks" or "she drinks" or "it drinks" means "O içer"

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/patrickmccarron

but...it is important. "He drinks" and "she drinks" and "it drinks" are all very different sentences in English. How does one differentiate in Turkish?

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/deti1959

I am native Turkish. There is not gender in Turkish just the opposite of German, Italian, French.

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/patrickmccarron

I didn't say your Turkish is wrong, I'm saying that there's a difference between "he drinks" and "she drinks." Say you're talking to someone about a boy and a girl, and you want to say "he drinks but she eats." How would you do that in Turkish? O içer (but) o yer? That doesn't clarify any ambiguity.

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/gypsybird

If you want to say "he eats but she drinks", you say "the boy eats but the girl drinks" or "the man eats but the woman drinks". You can't make the distinction with O.

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ataoldotcom

this is like an Italian native asking an English speaker "If i type 'i am/they are certain' how does anyone know if i'm describing male or female since these adj don't have genders?"

March 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Andro0

you never just start a conversation with " he drinks but she eats"... CONTEXT.. CONTEXT is big

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MicahDoo

This is like Chinese. We refer to anything third-person as "Ta". So in your case, we would just refer to "he" as "that boy/male" and "her" "that girl/female".

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/onurgur1

In most cases we simply use the name of the person we are referring to ,just like in any other language, or point our finger etc. Most names in Turkish are gender specific. I wish duo would have examples with real names for an added immersion effect.

Edit: I realized that in the later lessons there actually are some Turkish names used so great job Duo Turkish team for incorporating that to the lessons!

March 24, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/languagepotato

the same way you distinguish between two groups in english: context

if you're talking about two groups in english, it's grammatically correct to say

they drink orange juice but they drink water. doesn't clear up any ambiguity. that's why you'd say

Group A drink orange juice but group B drink water.

same thing in turkish, only they do this in singular too

March 26, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/v.ivanov

In the languages like Turkish (Finnish, Ossetic and many others) it's sometimes difficult to understand, whom a text is about — a man or a woman, until you meet a word like „sister“, „woman“ or clearly woman's name. That might seem strange or difficult for the speakers of other type languages, but it is a very widely spread mechanics :)

March 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mazpeterslove

My Good Sir, There are many languages around the World in which there are no difference between he/she/it. So, to end this ambiguous situation, one just have to make it clear, when the situation calls for it for example:- The boy is drinking. The man is eating. Or the girl is drinking. Or the bird is eating (It is eating.)

May 2, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AliKhoshnazar

This is like Persian. He or She or It in persian means او (ou) or اون (oun).

December 11, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lizzizi

Just like Hungarian. You don't make a difference between he/she. It is just one word: Ő.

November 7, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Akash_Polyglot

Hahahah no gender discrimination hahahhaa

May 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

And "They (men) eat" and "They (women)" eat" are very different sentences in French. How does one differentiate in English?

Different languages consider different things important to distinguish grammatically.

English doesn't have gender in the plural (it's all "they"); Turkish just takes this one step further and doesn't distinguish in the singular, either.

May 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/EvanMcKee1

Impressive language bar.

July 4, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/St_ayStrong

you can use

for "he drinks" o adam içer. o oğlan içer.

for "she drinks" o kadın içer. o kız içer.

for "it drinks" o hayvan içer. o köpek içer.

hayvan > animal köpek > dog

September 28, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Petik_NZ

But why does he write "o" and writes from the choices "he" and "she" together so i once tried to use "she" and he said incorrect

September 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AlexinNotTurkey

"she" is already accepted. Maybe you had a mistake somewhere else in your answer.

September 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Shahed0107469

Yes

June 24, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/burak.duolingo

Crystal, you would understand it from context. Turkish is non-gendered, so without contextual clues, there is no way of knowing if the third person singular "o" refers to a he, she, or it. If you want to be clear in your meaning, you would introduce other indicative words. For example, you could say "that girl drinks", or "my father drinks", or "Catherine drinks", or similar.

April 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/betheword

indiscriminate...the contextual nature will determine.

March 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Nihongoneko14

Even Malay (official language of Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei and Singapore. very indetical to Indonesian) has the same thing, dia means both she and he.

March 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Emily_YoloSwag17

i agree with you i put he/she/it because i didn't know which one it meant

May 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Eskander98

It's a lil bit confusing tbh

June 21, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/OLIVIAJOHN4880

He/she/it=O

May 19, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/huda.al.sokromy

From the Context of a long sentence , or if there is a name we can know, but if it's in a short sentence like "o okuyorsun" we will not relize the subject.

January 24, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/zubiz

o okuyor ;)

April 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/HarithHazi1

Yup ❤❤❤❤ that

March 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/michisjourdi

I'm having trouble grasping the pronunciation of içer. Can somebody give me a pointer or a link or something?

March 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dkoska

Try using forvo.com. -> for turkish: http://forvo.com/languages/tr/. It is a great website focusing on pronunciation. Native speakers record and post how to pronunce certain words. Içer is not amongst the pronunced words - but you can request it and sooner or later someone will pronunce it for you.

March 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/michisjourdi

Thanks, dkoska! That's so helpful. ^_^. Have a lingot on me.

March 26, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/YOYOOPOT

Can any one explain the grammar briefly?! why did i but the -er at the end on the verb?! Thanks in advance :)

April 12, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Selcen_Ozturk

the suffix for the present simple tense is er/ar.

last vowel: e/i/ü/ö: -er ... a/ı/o/u: -ar

There are a few exceptions, you can read the tips and notes for the aorist skill, but this is much later in the tree, we only have yemek, içmek, okumak in the beginning, all regular.

April 12, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/YOYOOPOT

Thanks

April 12, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zesul

The last consonant in 'içer' sounds like the 's' in measure. Isn't 'r' always pronounced as an alveolar flap or does it become a fricative when at the end?

May 17, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MarksAaron

Listening to a few native Turkish speakers, I have noticed that <r> can be pronounced as a fricative when syllable-final, or especially word-final. It ends up sounding to me something like a voiced post-alveolar or retroflex fricative - like that 's' in English 'measure' - but the voicing is weak and trails off by the end of the consonant.

September 14, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Yasmin_Gol

In Many languages also in persian "O" mean she or he ..... "O" in turkish i think mean she or he so we can replace it with "someone"

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

"She" is not the same as "someone".

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/bilalhjassam

when to use ic, icer and icersin??? would you please give ex each. thanks

January 7, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo
  • (ben) içerim - I drink
  • (sen) içersin - you drink
  • (o) içer - he drinks - she drinks - it drinks
  • (biz) içeriz - we drink
  • (siz) içersiniz - you drink
  • (onlar) içerler - they drink (also: onlar içer)

The form "iç!" is the imperative (command form).

January 7, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/myahyamuhaimin

Just like Indonesian, "dia" has no certain gender.

"O içer" precisely means "Dia minum".

April 23, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/layla489194

He, she and it are all refered to as (O) in Turkish, so all answers should be correct.

June 21, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JoshuaLemb1

Sometime the answer is wrong! Why this?

August 10, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rana205516

Well it seems that it is certain so we'll deal with it after all we are learning

January 31, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JoshuaLemb1

How to differentiate she or he in Turkish way of leaning!

August 10, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

You can't tell the difference. It can be either.

In English, you can't tell whether "they" refers to a group of males, a group of females, or a mixed group. In Turkish, it's similar for o -- you simply can't tell whether it refers to a male or a female.

Both translations will be accepted, in general.

August 10, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JoshuaLemb1

I'm a new student especially in Turkish language! Some one to help me! I got some ambiguous in the use of "O" to refer she or he? Another thing is bir and biz. I like some one to help me. I'm in East Africa Tanzania.

August 10, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/brahimAyyl2

it is not important. "He drinks" or "she drinks" or "it drinks" means "O içer"

September 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ancient

What is the difference between iç and içer and ye and yer?

June 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

"İç" and "ye" are imperatives (command forms): Drink! Eat!

"İçer" and "yer" are the simple present forms: he drinks, he eats (regularly, always, etc.).

June 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Yasmin_Gol

When you don't know exactly "O" in Turkish refer to mail or femail should mean like "someone "

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lucaturilli

Someone would be 'birisi'. Can you replace 'he' or 'she' with 'someone'? You can't. Because they are different words with different meanings.

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Exactly. One you use if you know who is doing something, the other you use if you do not know who is doing something.

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Yasmin_Gol

Good job now i understand it well you also can say that "O" use when you know the gender before you call ( that person's Gender ) in sentence ... It mean you have info about that person gender then you use "O"

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lucaturilli

No, this is not necessary. Just third singular person is 'o' in Turkish. Gender is not important.

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

No. If someone looks androgynous, for example - you cannot tell whether they are a man or a woman - but you know who it is, you can use "o". Gender is not important.

Or if they are a man dressed up as a woman, or a woman dressed up as a man. Or if they are a Martian. Or a dog. Or a plant. Everything is "o" if you can identify who or what it is.

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vinczebog

(cool! just like in Hungarian O=ő=he/she)

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Yes :)

The "have" construction is also like in Hungarian... and the existence of vowel harmony... and the way the case endings are the same for all words... and that case+plural has two separate suffixes rather than a combined one.

October 25, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/habibisme1

How you know that o refers to man or woman

November 8, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

The same way that you know whether "they" in English refers to many men or many women: context.

Without context, you don't know. And it usually doesn't matter, just like with English "they".

November 8, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rodinamari

What the different between drink and drinks The two words with the same mening

December 3, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo
  • I drink
  • you drink
  • he drinks - she drinks - it drinks - the boy drinks
  • we drink
  • you drink
  • they drink - the boys drink

The form "drinks" is used used with third person singular ("he, she, it" as well as singular nouns).

December 4, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AliKhoshnazar

İçer is a verb? İç is a noun? I confused...

December 11, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AlexinNotTurkey

İçer is a verb (and so is iç for that matter. It is the command form of içer)

December 11, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

is also a noun (kutunun inde) and a related adjective ( politika).

December 11, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AlexinNotTurkey

True, true. :) Just remember AliKhoshnazar, that these two other forms of iç are not related to the verb :)

December 11, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/sapocs

Hello. First day on Turkish. I would have translated he drinks by "içyor". What's the difference ? Why is it wrong ? Thanks

February 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Roughly:

  • O içiyor - he is drinking
  • O içer - he drinks

different tenses in English, different tenses in Turkish.

The Duolingo course teaches the geniş zaman (aorist tense) first, which doesn't have an exact equivalent in English but sometimes corresponds to present simple tense, and that is how you should translate it on Duolingo, at least for the first several dozen skills until more advanced sentences appear.

So "ben içerim = I drink, sen yersin = you eat, etc." rather than "...am drinking, are eating ... etc.".

February 20, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ana766054

One comment mention "you never start a conversation with "he drinks but she eats", but what if example: I lost my cellphone at a bar. I go back into the bar looking for it and a random person says "O içer" how do I know "she or he" the one thats drinking?

April 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Context.

If the random person says "They are drinking", how do you know whether it's a group of men or a group of women that's drinking? (The difference is important in French, for example.)

And if there's no context - you just don't know.

If someone says "I have a friend who's a doctor", how do you know whether the friend is male or female? You don't.

April 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/zubiz

When I started learning English many years ago, I was truly shocked when I realized that 2nd person pronoun "you" can't distinguish the plurality of people that "you" refer to. Unlike Turkish "o", however, this turns out to be a real problem for some people at least, otherwise they wouldn't be inventing stuff like "youse", "y'all", "you guys" and the like. Even more interesting to me that I wasn't even aware of the need to differentiate them until I visited the United States in 1998, where I was able to observe the need to distinguish between plural and singular "you"s. I clearly remember that I asked someone "what is youse?".

April 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/v.ivanov

You will find that there are many such languages in the world. Turkish is in good company of Finnish (that has also no future tense by the way), Hungarian, some languages of India and many others. If you ask me, such differences is the thing that makes me curious about foreign languages :)

April 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/KxngDeo.

So there's no gender in Turkish? This is like Lingala and parts of Italian.

April 5, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

That's right - no gender in Turkish! :)

April 5, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/rYRz1

what does o mean

May 20, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

It can mean any of:

  • he
  • she
  • it
  • that
  • that one
May 20, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/hmdaa

how do i know if-o- is he or she?

July 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Context. Just like how you know in English whether "you" means one person or many, or whether "they" is a group of men, a group of women, or a mixed group. Or whether "uncle" means "brother of your father", "brother of your mother", "husband of your father's sister", or "husband of your mother's sister".

It often doesn't matter in Turkish.

If you get a sentence in Duolingo with o in the Turkish and there is no context (since you're just shown a single sentence, not a whole conversation), then both translations (he / she) should be accepted since you can't know.

July 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BigBadBillyD

do we add the er for verbs in the current tense? does this apply to past or future tense? i.e. "He will drink" or "He drank"

August 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

-er or -ar (depending on vowel harmony) forms the Turkish aorist tense (geniş zaman "wide time"), which at the beginning of this course is translated with the English simple present tense as indicating general habits.

The past and the future use different endings (e.g. içecek "he will drink", içti "he drank"), as does the "normal" present tense that applies to things that are happening right now and for which English uses the present continuous (içiyor "he is drinking"). You will learn all those later.

August 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/BigBadBillyD

teşekkür ederim!

August 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lotta562294

What's the difference between iç and içer?

January 6, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lucaturilli

'İç(-)' is the verb root of 'içmek' and also means 'inner,inside' as a noun or adjective. The imperative second person singular form of the verb is also 'İç!'.

'İçer.' is (indicative) third person singular present simple form of the verb.

January 7, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ebuka711587

I side he drink but still not correct

March 13, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/fatma405403

he drinks... is the correct answer

March 13, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Furat12

how do you know that ''o'' is about ''he'' or ''she'' ??

May 3, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mizinamo

Both are accepted in the English translation, since you can't know which it is.

(In a real conversation, of course, there'll be context -- you'll usually know whom a person is talking about.)

May 4, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/saira73693

That is bad for kids

May 23, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/u9Hb9

Turkish is very hard to learn it no

June 8, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/iscoscarv

Turkish/English whatsapp group https://chat.whatsapp.com/JFatqrdhYaw5cNpK7PRexb Please like my comment for more people see it

July 11, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/iscoscarv
July 24, 2019
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