içerim-i drink içersin-you drink(singular) içer-he/she/it drinks içeriz-we drink içersiniz-you drink(plural) içerler-they drink note: you can only say ''içerler'' when you are talking about just humans. otherwise you would say içer. example:Women drink-Kadınlar içerler/içer Birds drink-Kuşlar içer. Although ''Kuşlar içerler.'' is technically wrong in daily speech, they would use it.
I didn't say your Turkish is wrong, I'm saying that there's a difference between "he drinks" and "she drinks." Say you're talking to someone about a boy and a girl, and you want to say "he drinks but she eats." How would you do that in Turkish? O içer (but) o yer? That doesn't clarify any ambiguity.
In most cases we simply use the name of the person we are referring to ,just like in any other language, or point our finger etc. Most names in Turkish are gender specific. I wish duo would have examples with real names for an added immersion effect.
Edit: I realized that in the later lessons there actually are some Turkish names used so great job Duo Turkish team for incorporating that to the lessons!
the same way you distinguish between two groups in english: context
if you're talking about two groups in english, it's grammatically correct to say
they drink orange juice but they drink water. doesn't clear up any ambiguity. that's why you'd say
Group A drink orange juice but group B drink water.
same thing in turkish, only they do this in singular too
In the languages like Turkish (Finnish, Ossetic and many others) it's sometimes difficult to understand, whom a text is about — a man or a woman, until you meet a word like „sister“, „woman“ or clearly woman's name. That might seem strange or difficult for the speakers of other type languages, but it is a very widely spread mechanics :)
My Good Sir, There are many languages around the World in which there are no difference between he/she/it. So, to end this ambiguous situation, one just have to make it clear, when the situation calls for it for example:- The boy is drinking. The man is eating. Or the girl is drinking. Or the bird is eating (It is eating.)
And "They (men) eat" and "They (women)" eat" are very different sentences in French. How does one differentiate in English?
Different languages consider different things important to distinguish grammatically.
English doesn't have gender in the plural (it's all "they"); Turkish just takes this one step further and doesn't distinguish in the singular, either.
Crystal, you would understand it from context. Turkish is non-gendered, so without contextual clues, there is no way of knowing if the third person singular "o" refers to a he, she, or it. If you want to be clear in your meaning, you would introduce other indicative words. For example, you could say "that girl drinks", or "my father drinks", or "Catherine drinks", or similar.
I got this one on the "type what you hear" and to my untrained ear it sounds more like "o icAr" than "o icEr." I know many languages in their spoken version tend to vary from what we're used to seeing from the letters' pronunciations. Is there a consistent pattern with the Turkish language where if x comes before the "e" and y comes after it, it tends to be pronounced more like an "a"?
Another area I've noticed this is the recording of "erkek" sounds more like "uhkuk." Is this a common pattern that "er" becomes pronounced more like "uh" than an "enunciated" "eRRRR"?
In short, what is the written-to-spoken trend?
What I have noticed is that the letter "e" is usually pronounced like the "e" in the English word "bet", but sometimes, it sounds more like the "a" in the English word "bat". In Azerbaijani, another Turkic language, they use the letter "ə" to represent this sound (I think the international symbol is /æ/) and make the distinction between a pure "e", and the "ə", which is closer to the "a" in "hat". The word for "you" in Turkish is "sen" but in Azerbaijani, it's "sən". Anyway, what I'm trying to say is that I also noticed some variation in the way the "e" is pronounced in Turkish, sometimes. :)
Also, the letter "r" is much softer than in Spanish to my ears, and it certainly doesn't sound like the Spanish "rr". It's not really trilled, it sounds more like it's whispered. And in some cases, it actually sounds like the English "r".
Last thing I noticed, the letter "v" is also very soft... Sometimes, it almost sounds like an English "w", but not quite... Anyway, these are just my impressions... I'm neither a native speaker nor a linguist. :)
Edit: Oh and by the way, I'm not basing this on the speech engine... I'm talking about what I hear when I listen to people.
E is pronounced like the 'a' in 'cat' if it comes before one of the letters l/m/n/r and that consonant isn't followed by another vowel. In addition, the vowel in the third person aorist suffix '-mez' is also pronounced with an 'a' sound. In other positions, it sounds like the 'e' in 'bet'.
If there is an established context, then yes, it would be acceptable. For example,
- I smoke daily. What about John? Do you know if he smokes?
- Yes. He smokes.
In this conversation, it would be acceptable for the second person's reply (i.e. "he smokes") to be translated as "o içer".
Try using forvo.com. -> for turkish: http://forvo.com/languages/tr/. It is a great website focusing on pronunciation. Native speakers record and post how to pronunce certain words. Içer is not amongst the pronunced words - but you can request it and sooner or later someone will pronunce it for you.
Listening to a few native Turkish speakers, I have noticed that <r> can be pronounced as a fricative when syllable-final, or especially word-final. It ends up sounding to me something like a voiced post-alveolar or retroflex fricative - like that 's' in English 'measure' - but the voicing is weak and trails off by the end of the consonant.
You can't tell the difference. It can be either.
In English, you can't tell whether "they" refers to a group of males, a group of females, or a mixed group. In Turkish, it's similar for o -- you simply can't tell whether it refers to a male or a female.
Both translations will be accepted, in general.
No. If someone looks androgynous, for example - you cannot tell whether they are a man or a woman - but you know who it is, you can use "o". Gender is not important.
Or if they are a man dressed up as a woman, or a woman dressed up as a man. Or if they are a Martian. Or a dog. Or a plant. Everything is "o" if you can identify who or what it is.
- O içiyor - he is drinking
- O içer - he drinks
different tenses in English, different tenses in Turkish.
The Duolingo course teaches the geniş zaman (aorist tense) first, which doesn't have an exact equivalent in English but sometimes corresponds to present simple tense, and that is how you should translate it on Duolingo, at least for the first several dozen skills until more advanced sentences appear.
So "ben içerim = I drink, sen yersin = you eat, etc." rather than "...am drinking, are eating ... etc.".
If the random person says "They are drinking", how do you know whether it's a group of men or a group of women that's drinking? (The difference is important in French, for example.)
And if there's no context - you just don't know.
If someone says "I have a friend who's a doctor", how do you know whether the friend is male or female? You don't.
When I started learning English many years ago, I was truly shocked when I realized that 2nd person pronoun "you" can't distinguish the plurality of people that "you" refer to. Unlike Turkish "o", however, this turns out to be a real problem for some people at least, otherwise they wouldn't be inventing stuff like "youse", "y'all", "you guys" and the like. Even more interesting to me that I wasn't even aware of the need to differentiate them until I visited the United States in 1998, where I was able to observe the need to distinguish between plural and singular "you"s. I clearly remember that I asked someone "what is youse?".
You will find that there are many such languages in the world. Turkish is in good company of Finnish (that has also no future tense by the way), Hungarian, some languages of India and many others. If you ask me, such differences is the thing that makes me curious about foreign languages :)
Context. Just like how you know in English whether "you" means one person or many, or whether "they" is a group of men, a group of women, or a mixed group. Or whether "uncle" means "brother of your father", "brother of your mother", "husband of your father's sister", or "husband of your mother's sister".
It often doesn't matter in Turkish.
If you get a sentence in Duolingo with o in the Turkish and there is no context (since you're just shown a single sentence, not a whole conversation), then both translations (he / she) should be accepted since you can't know.
-er or -ar (depending on vowel harmony) forms the Turkish aorist tense (geniş zaman "wide time"), which at the beginning of this course is translated with the English simple present tense as indicating general habits.
The past and the future use different endings (e.g. içecek "he will drink", içti "he drank"), as does the "normal" present tense that applies to things that are happening right now and for which English uses the present continuous (içiyor "he is drinking"). You will learn all those later.