"The woman drinks water."
Translation:Kadın su içer.
Not always, in English we only have two forms "drink" and "drinks" for simple present tense, but there are more forms for "drink" in Turkish depending on which pronoun would be used. "Iç!" is the imperative form used when we are telling someone to "Drink!"
I drink = ben içerim
you drink (singular) = sen içersin
he or she or it drinks = o içer
we drink = biz içeriz
you drink (plural) = siz içersiniz
they drink = onlar icerler
I think a better question would have been, why do you think 'bir' should be used here?
So that is the same question I asked, where is "bir"? Because the English sentence presented for translation has the article "a" and in the past lessons "bir" was used for the word "a", as in "a apple". Since I know that "bir" is "one", I am thinking in the previous lesson, "bir elma" was literally saying "one apple" versus "an apple" as in "a woman". So, a follow-up question is, when would one know if "a" is being used as an article vs identifying a singular instance?
Why is ' Kadın içer su' wrong? Is this the typical construction in Turkish?
There are no articles in Turkish, however a direct object would have a suffix added only when definite. This Accusative case suffix is not used when the direct object is indefinite. On Duolingo, you will see "bir" added in front of the subject when it is indefinite, so you can safely use "the" when the subject is not preceded by "bir".
The i with a dot the ı without a dot are two different letters in Turkish and thus are pronounced differently. Simply don't think of them as related - just like e and a are different letters. Kadın is not pronounced "ka-deen", which is how it would be pronounced if it were spelled with the dotted i.
There is no word for "the" in Turkish, especially for the noun as a subject, but there is a suffix that you can add to a direct object that makes it definite. No articles, so when the word by itself is translated to English then you add "the" for English and Duolingo adds " bir" when Duolingo wants you to use "a"' instead.
Some languages don't use their progressive tense much and then our continuous tense may be translated to such a language's simple present tense, but Turkish is not such a language. Turkish does use their progressive tense often. So "is drinkıng" = "içiyor" as we will learn later.