Yeah, there are fewer loanwords in Turkish because of Atatürk's language reform in the mid-1920s. That's not to say there aren't loanwords at all though, bisiklet, for example is a French loanword, which as BettinaKa pointed out, is the 2nd largest source of loanwords after Arabic. Pretty sure şans is a French loanword too (this sentence looks like an adaptation to "bonne chance," which has the same meaning). I bet if I were to look up the word "luck" in Seljuk-era or early Ottoman Turkish, şans would not be there.
The "original language" of Turkish is Oghuz from which the Turkish, Azerbaijani, Turkmen languages and some other small West Turkic languages come.
It's comparable with how Latin is the mother language of French, Spanish, Italian etc, although the Oghuz languages still have a larger amount of mutual intelligibility than the Romance languages.
The old Oghuz language is in turn a descendant of the Turkic language family which also contains East Turkic languages such as Kazakh, Uyghur, Uzbek, Yakut etc.
English, and many other languages, has taken some words from Turkish:
yogurt (yoğurt) kebab or shish kebab (kebap or şiş kebap) baklava (Baklava) bergamot (bey armudu) bulgur (bulgur) kefir (kefir) kielbasa (külbastı) kiosk (köşk) lackey (ulak) turquoise (turkuaz)
Kebap is actually from the Persian word "Kabab" which means "roast". But you are right, it entered English through Turkish. The word turquoise though is not Turkish at all. It is French! It means Turkish in French, often qualifying the gemstone or the blue color. If the Turks are indeed calling the gemstone turkuaz, then they must have borrowed the word from French.
I am a native Persian speaker, and know enough about the Arabic language. I know that Persian has absorbed many Turkish words over the centuries. Even Persian grammar has discarded many of its original indo-european features under the influence of Turkish such as grammatical gender and now puts the verb at the end of the sentence. However, the Turkish language has borrowed a far greater number of Persian and Arabic words than the other way around. Most of the Arabic words entered Turkish through Persian. Even after Ataturk's linguistic reforms, Turkish is still full of Persian words. I can't give you an exact number but 40%-50% will not be an exaggeration.
Oh sure, I agree with that (and I hadn't realized that Polish kiełbasa comes from Turkish). I was just surprised by your your claim that there are very few borrowings, as I've barely started this course, but already I've seen merhaba and vaya from Arabic and şans from French. I suppose that the number of borrowings in common use has been greatly reduced since Ottoman times, though. To put a number on it, Wikipedia  says that the official dictionary Güncel Türkçe Sözlük is about 14% borrowings.
One thing that does confuse me about your comments (and I've seen it a few times) is your statement that Turkish is an "original" language. What do you have in mind with this?
To multilinkt: your claim that Turkish comes from Turkish and French comes from Latin really makes me laugh. Probably you should read something about your own hystory and try to find on the map where you were roaming when Latin was spoken in Rome. Probably you'll be surprised to hear that there are lots of other languages which have the same sourse as yours and some of them are much closer to the sourse both in vocabulary and grammar.
Pronunciation appears somewhat variable in this course, for example, akşamlar [previously] is pronounced as it is spelled with the first 's' as 'sh' and the 'lar' as 'lar'; but in the case in question - şanslar the first 's' is said as 'sh', whereas the last 'ar' in 'lar' is pronounced as an 'arsh'. This latter pronunciation occurs throughout the course and confuses me. I understand that it is a Turkish 'accent' or 'dialect', but I do not know where it originates.
Apparently, the Duolingo people expect us to have standard English QWERTY keyboards, and to use the little buttons for the Turkish characters not found thereon. It seems to me, though, that people who are serious about learning another language hit the [Alt][Shift] keys to call up the appropriate keyboard!