There is a technical difference between the two, but it is accepted now. I realize a lot of people use the two interchangeably. :)
In this context, what exactly does that mean? Because if it isn't I generally am willing to eat pasta (which seems to be Makarna yerim) or I am currently eating this specific pasta (which is that ongoing present tense thing) then I'm not sure when/how you would use this sentence.
You explained the difference already. It is a question of specificity.
Like you pronounce, Portakalı? Por tu ka luh? It doesn't sound like that in the audio... Im confused
In thay case it would be 'Makarna yerim.' This lesson is focused on accusative and the accusative suffix is translated as 'the' in English. In general.
I think the present simple tense sounds really bad here. In English, it is used fir something I do regularly. However if I eat "the noodles", this is something I can only do once and need Present Continuous: I am eating the noodles. I will report this
We will not accept it. It is simple present. For example: A restaurant has 3 sides, noodles, salad and mashed potatoes. I go all of the time and I eat the noodles.