Since Turkish isn't related to Indoeuropean languages maybe some phrases could be given with explanations if needed, to avoid ambiguities.
When I read this phrase, I try to think as simply as possible, to get rid of the Indoeuropean framework.
To me this sentence it looks like an apple and some water (I don't know anything else yet). Is this what this means?
You are right a bit in my humble opinion, In Turkish, "some" is more specific than English, i may say it defines the quantity as in "some" and "a lot". So if a person does not want to stress on the quantity of water (as in this sentence), s/he doesn't use the word "some".
Also, i may say that there is no indefinite article as "a" or "an", so if there is "bir" in front of any word, you may easily say that it is "one". However, to translate better and more correctly, as you don't say "one apple and water", you may decide to say "an apple and water".