Indeed, Polish and Belarusian are the only two slavic languages, in which tea is herbata, resp. гарбата. In all the others, this includes Bulgarian, Czech, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian/Croatian, Slovak, Slovenian, Ukrainian it is always чай, čaj, чаj or similar spelling, all based on the same "chai" pronunciation. To the large extent, afaik, the term is used both for tea and for herbal infusion.
Polish 'herbata' comes from Latin 'herba thea' so it's actually also comes from Ta ;) It means both the specific herb and infusion from different herbs and dried fruits. In the second case you often specify which herb/fruit ('herbata owocowa, malinowa, miętowa'). Also when you're talking about infusion from herb you can omit 'herbata' and just say the herb name ('mięta' - mint or infusion from mint).
The words "tea" in many languages mainly come from two branches of Chinese language, one is "cha," which is used in Mandarin; and the other one is "tê," which is used in Minnan (Sothern-Min) language nowadays. I live in Taiwan and I speak both these language. For example, Turkish "çay," Russian "чай," japanese "(o)chya" are borrowed from "cha", while English "tea," French "thé" and German "Tee" are borrowed from "tê." Feel free to correct me if I am wrong :)
In Arabic there is no letter or sound for what in Turkish is "ç" (in English mostly written as "ch") That's why Persian, Ottoman Turkish and other languages, that took over the Arabic alphabet, added the letter "چ", on the other hand in words with the the sound "ç" from other languages that entered into Arabic, the sound (and letter) is replaced by ش. E.g. in the case of شاي, which probably came via the Persian چای.
Turkish and Uzbek are very closely related. As are Azeri and Turkmen and Kazakh. No doubt they all came from the same ancestor language. Look up Turkic languages. A fluent turkic speaker can easily learn all the other Turkic languages. They are all basically dialects of each other.
I read: "TEA:1650s, tay, also in early spellings thea, tey, tee and at first pronounced so as to rhyme with obey; the modern pronunciation predominates from mid-18c. But earlier in English as chaa (1590s), also cha, tcha, chia, cia. The two forms of the word reflect two paths of transmission: chaa is from Portuguese cha, attested in Portuguese from 1550s, via Macao, from Mandarin (Chinese) ch'a. The later form, which became Modern English tea, is via Dutch, from Malay teh and directly from Chinese (Amoy dialect) t'e, which corresponds to Mandarin ch'a. "
Tea means it was introduced from the sea, the maritime silk road, while cha means it was introduced from the land, the regular silk road. It is interesting that the Poles use herbata, if they use cza, it would sound exactly the same as Mandarin, Polish cz is the same as Mandarin ch.
Yep! Typically, if the country was exposed to it by overland trade from northern China, or from the Portuguese conquest of Macau, the language ended up with a word derived from Cantonese chà (cf. Turkish çay, Russian чай, Arabic شاي (shay), Japanese おちゃ ocha, and Hindi चाय (chaay) which shows up in English as "chai (masala)", a variety of black tea with a blend of spices, and British slang "char," both borrowings from Colonial India.)
If they got it from the Min Chinese who lived on the southern China coast and did a lot of sea trade, or from the Dutch who traded with the Min, they ended up something derived from Min tê (cf. English "tea", Dutch thee, French thé, German Tee.)