"I eat those apples."
Translation:Ben o elmaları yerim.
i read in a turkish grammar the difference between "bu", "su" and "o". "o" is employed for very far object "su" for less far object "bu" for near object We also have these three nuances in french.
Reading "ben "o" elmari yerim", i can imagine a shop with different piles of apples, more or less near of the buyer. The buyer shows the further apples from him and say " i want those apples" = "ben o elmalari...." What do you think about that?
Thanks Yomalin. En français nous disons "je mange cette pomme", celle qui est devant moi (ben bu elmayi yerim), "je mange cette pomme-ci" qui est dans la cuisine (ben su elamyi yerim), "je mange cette pomme-là" (ben o elmayi yerim) de l'arbre qui est au fond du jardin. Do you understand my sentences?
first of all:
- those apples: şu elmalar
- those are apples: şunlar elma(lar)
when these/those are used as determiners/adjectives, they are translated as singular in Turkish (o/şu/bu)
Verbs require different cases (you probably only learned nominative and accusative so far). But if a verb can take nominative or accusative (that's most of the verbs), then the accusative is used for a "defined" object, and nominative for a general, undefined object. For example "the" defines objects, as well as "these" or "those". Is it clear?
This won't apply to every language, but in Turkish:
Verbs have tenses: simple present tense, future tense, definite past tense, etc. (There are many!)
Nouns have cases: nominative, accusative, dative, locative, ablative, genitive... and instrumental. Note: this last one is open to debate, but that's not important at all until you advance much further...and you'll be a pro by then. :-)
Edit: I went back to Selcen's post... Now I see why you posted the question! After many re-reads, I think she just needed more coffee that morning... She definitely meant "nouns" instead of "verbs," and it took 4 years for someone to catch it... Well done :-)
"o" and "şu" are accepted, but not "şunlar" for this sentence structure.
şunlar can only be a demonstrative pronoun (replacing a noun). It cannot be a demonstrative adjective (describing/modifying a noun). For example:
- şunlar büyük = those are big
- şu elmalar büyük = those apples are big
Short answer: No :-)
Onu is only an option when it is replacing the direct object. In these type of sentences, "o" is considered a demonstrative pronoun, so it can take the accusative form "onu", or "onları" for plural.
ex. Ben onu yerim (I eat that) // Ben onları yerim (I eat those)
However, in the original sentence, "o" is a demonstrative adjective. It's describing /modifying the apples rather than replacing them. (What kind of apples? THOSE apples [o elmalar]). When o (or bu / şu) are acting as dem. adjectives, they cannot take accusative form or plural suffixes-- those go on the noun that they are describing /introducing: "Ben o elmaları yerim" :-)
Hm... I can't find a Duo sentence translating "o" as "these"... This is what I found (Tur > Eng, and Eng > Tur):
- Ben o elmaları yerim. = I eat those apples. (link)
- I eat those apples. = Ben o elmaları yerim. (link)
"O" is a bit flexible, as I'm sure you've noticed: that, those, he, she, it... but not "this" or "these" :-)
No, we can't use "elma" here. The rule about singular nouns translating as plural only applies to unspecific/general objects. Ex. Elma yerim = I eat an apple / I eat apples.
In Duo's sentence, however, it must be plural because it is specific: "those apples"... not apples in general. Also don't forget the accusative case ending (for the same reason- they are specific). :-)
Amailar, in Trukish language, as you write, there is two means to mark the plural at the end of a word: "LAR" and "LER". It depends on which wovel the word is ending with. It is the 2 way wovel harmony. When the last wovel of a word is one of those fomlowing: "o, ı, u and a" you have to use "LAR". When the last wovel is one of these "ö, ü, e, and i" you have to use "LER". Have a look here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vhfCuYtnR2I, about the question of 2 wovel harmony, video in English, very clear, my favorite or on duolingo turkish grammar portal. Enjoy it!
Indeed_danish, it is because "those" in "those apples" is a demonstrative adjective and not demonstrative pronoun. "şunu/onu", demonstrative pronoun at the accusative case, are used after a verb as direct object: "i eat it"="onu yerim". Have a look at duolingo Turkish grammar portal, Selcen'table is very helpfull: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/7736569. Enjoy it!
Whenever the object (in this case apple) is made definite with the use of a demonstrative adjective, it is supposed to be written in its accusative form because its definite now - The way we write "al" in Arabic. Had it been the subject, it would have been "şu/o elmalar" only. In Turkish, as far as I've learnt, the object is required to be specified clearly, and not the subject as much.