So am I guessing right that both "Pastayı yerler" and "Onlar pastayı yer" are equivalent? Does it work for other persons? Like "Siz pastayı yersin", or is the third person special since it has "no suffix" or say the minimal suffix?
Ok last: is "Onlar pastayı yerler" overdoing (as in wouldn't be actually used) or simply stressing the pronoun, as in "Ben Türkçe biliyorum"?
I think Selcen has moved on to other pursuits. She is qualified to answer, I not necessarily! But I think that, when she says "do it together," she's talking about the cake-eating and beer-drinking, rather than different people eating/drinking these things at different times. Or is that what you meant?
Sorry the answer is four years late, but the suffixes don't sound the same because of vowel harmony. :) (Click on the lightbulb above the lesson for the explanation: https://www.duolingo.com/skill/tr/Accusative/tips-and-notes )
"Onlar pastayı yer ve birayı içer." Translation: They eat the cake and drink the beer.
You don’t need to include ‘the’ before cake and before beer.
Yes you do, if you are translating from Turkish to English.
Both objects have the (accusative) case marker.
Pastayı - (y) buffer consonant + back vowel "-ı."
Birayı - (y) buffer consonant + back vowel "-ı."
The definite direct objects.
3rd person plurals in Turkish.
In Turkish, why do plural nouns act as the third person singular verb conjugation?
When it’s clear that the noun is plural, you don’t need the plural suffix (-lar/-ler) when conjugating the verb.
Giderler (They go). You don’t know if the subject is singular or plural because there is no subject in the sentence. The only way to understand what the subject is, is to look at the verb conjugation.
Kaplumbağalar gider. (Turtles go). The subject already has the plural suffix. You don't need another one when conjugating the verb.
If you want to, you can use both. But sometimes it sounds unnatural.
Yes, and often you should or must use "yer" instead of "yerler." But this is a special case, just for plural subjects. If you want to be right all the time, just never include the plural suffix (-"ler") -- as long as something else makes clear that the subject is plural. This is based on the TIPS discussion at https://www.duolingo.com/skill/tr/To-be/tips-and-notes. See especially point 4) under the table.
As far as other forms, no: Making the changes you listed would change the meaning in inappropriate ways. That is, "yersin" is the singular & familiar "you" form, while "yersiniz" is for the plural and/or polite "you" (two different meanings). And if the subject is "we," you need "yeriz," not "yer." Happy learning!