I typed "sen su içercin" instead of "...içersin" Thankfully it counted it correct and "has a typo." That said, however, is there a pattern/"rule" of what sound "c" makes vs what sound "s" makes, so I don't get confused thinking they can sometimes be interchanged to make that [s] (IPA) sound? In other words, is "c" consistently [ts] or [tʃ ] (IPA again) or is it always dependent upon context (like in English)?
Well, "c" in Turkish always generates the same sound, doesn't change by the location or anything else. It has the sound of "g" in "general" or "j" in "Jack". You never use it for "s" or "k" sounds (unlike you use it in English words "center" or "correct"). And the letter "ç" is like "ch" in English (not like in "chemistry" but like in "check" or "choose"). I hope it helped :)
Agreed with Lephar. Standard Turkish pronunciation for the most part follows spelling almost to a fault. Even phonetic changes related to morphological endings are reflected in the spelling (e.g. k-->ğ between vowels, dropping epenthetic vowels before case endings, vowel harmony itself being clearly written). With a few very mild exceptions, one sound maps to one letter; that was actually part of the alphabet reform that was actively planned, with linguists and everything, in the early 20th century.
How does the verb "to eat" conjugate in Turkish? like "I eat" "you eat" "He/She/It eats" "we eat" "You eat" "they eat".
The verb in this question is "içmek" and it means "to drink", but in case you really are interested in "to eat", here are the conjugations (ye- is the word stem and -r is the present tense suffix, the rest defines the subject); I eat: Yerim, You(singular) eat: Yersin, He/She/It eats: Yer, We eat: Yeriz, You(plural) eat: Yersiniz, They eat: Yerler.
"Sen" is always singular. However, "siz" can be singular or plural depending on the level of formality. It is used as plural you inside family or among friends. But in formal context it is used to refer to a single person like your boss, elderly people or strangers. Kinda like French "vous".
No, “sen” represents “you” and “içersin” is the verb “drink” specifically conjugated for that pronoun. English uses SVO word order or subject verb object, but Turkish uses SOV word order or subject object verb. If you know it is grammatically wrong, why would you ask that? You simply must change the word order to suit the particular language.
"drinks" is an English 3rd person singular form
"We drink water." would be "Biz su içeriz."
"Sen su içersin." = "You drink water." singular you form
O su içer. = "He drinks water." or "She drinks water."
Siz su içeriz. = " You drink water." plural you form
Onlar su içerler. = "They drink water."