You are right Julia they are almost identical you can use interchangeably. The discuss was about using single or double "f" what I was trying to say that when you use it with double ff it takes another meaning but it is a futile dispute (at least has no added value here) so sont let it confuse you. You can use both moreover "pardon" is used more often
Even if it is used in spoken Turkish one never say "affedersin" in this meaning. you may say "afedersin" instead of "pardon" in the cases you use "excuse me" in English. On the other hand "Affetmek" means "to forgive" and "Affedersin" means "you forgive" and you can not use "afedersin" or "pardon" in this case as you can already imagine.
For example; "He comes to you and apologize and then you forgive him" can be translated as "Sana gelir ve özür diler ve sonra sen onu affedersin"
what do you mean by "Even if it is used in spoken Turkish one never say "affedersin" in this meaning." This really makes no sense to me.
A word can have different meanings, "affetmek" means "to forgive" and it can used in the context you mentioned as well.
However, a lot of people would say affedersin or affedersiniz instead of pardon *all the time.
I dont mean be controversialist just trying to provide added value in your course. I am 45 and never ever heard somebody pronunce it with 2 f anywhere in Turkey and it is one of the words TDK redecorated recently but google's translation is correct I believe. Anyway let it be anyway you like I am not in a position to argue that.
it is common. And there are some instances where kusura bakma(yın) and affedersin(iz) are not interchangeable.
When you want to stop someone to ask something, you would never ever say "kusura bakma(yın)", you would say "affedersin(iz)" or "pardon."
For apologizing, you would more often say "kusura bakma/yın)", but it is also totally normal and not so uncommon to say "affedersin(iz)"
You're close, but not quite. "عف" in Arabic means "to refrain" or "to abstain" or "to be virtuous, chaste, pure, etc." The Arabic loanword that you see in Affedersen actually comes from the Arabic root "عفو" which can mean "to forgive" or "to excuse, free, relieve, exempt, etc." However, in some cases عفو can be synonymous with عف; both can be used to mean "to abstain" for instance.
The similarity in meaning would lead some to speculate that the Arabic word عفو ultimately derives from the other Arabic word عف, however since no comprehensive, etymological resource exists for Arabic, that can only be speculation for the time being.
For my definitions, see "The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Standard Arabic" Fourth Edition, p730-731
Af (pronounced exactly as Affa) is the past verb of Afaf (عفاف), While Afa (عفا) is the past verb of Afo (عفو)
for more details you can check: http://www.almaany.com/ar/dict/ar-ar/%D8%B9%D9%81%D8%A7/
Absolutely, in fact many words with "e" are often pronounced somewhere between the phonemes "e" and "ae." (I'm not familiar with the full list of international phonemes, perhaps a unique one exists for the sound, I don't know.) Your example is one of them. Another very common example is the word "ben," which often sounds a bit more like English "ban," although not always, and not by everyone.
In fact, because I first learned Turkish using an all-audio program before I started learning the written language, I thought it was affedarsiniz, and it took some time to unlearn this mistake. (The upside is that people always comment that I sound like a native; I probably wouldn't if I had learned the rule that "e" is always pronounced "e", and other rules like it!)
For example, the Turkish "i" also has at least two unique sounds, contrary to what we are taught. We always learn that the Turkish "i" is pronounced like English "ee" (phoneme "i"). But you will very often hear it pronounced as a short "i" (phoneme "ɪ"), as in the English word "sit," especially when it is part of a suffix, and sometimes in the question word "mi." In fact, I don't think I have ever heard the suffix -siniz pronounced "seeneez," at least by Istanbulites.
I see that this is an old post so I bet you're well on your way to speaking like a native by now. Therefore I'm responding primarily to warn others not to be fooled into thinking there is only one sound for every letter in Turkish; perhaps officially yes, but the language is richer than you'd think. :)