"The mouse eats bread."
Translation:Fare ekmek yer.
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no that's completely wrong. The subject doesn't have to come first; if it is in accusative case, it is not the subject anymore. You cannot differentiate between a definite and indefinite subject in Turkish, remember, there are no articles in Turkish. Turkish only has a case for direct definite objects. You have the same problem if you have dative case for example. If you want to say "He gave bread to birds" or "He gave bread to the birds", they will both be "Kuşlara ekmek verdi". You simply cannot differentiate. If it is a countable singular noun, you can add "bir" to emphasize that it is indefinite. e.g. "A mouse eats bread" can be "Bir fare ekmeği yer".
Also the possessive suffix sometimes is the same as the accusative one. So your sentence "ekmegi fareyi yer" can only mean: "His/Her bread eats the mouse".
You've probably figured it out since this was a year ago, but for anyone just finding this (since I had the same question) - the subject can't be in accusative case because accusative case only applies to objects :) So this is like asking why in English "The mouse eats bread" doesn't mean the same things as "The bread eats mouse"... it's just how the language works.
As for how you are supposed to differentiate "a mouse" from "the mouse" as a subject, we already know that there are no definite/indefinite articles, so you'll have to use bir I think if you want to emphasize indefinite. But I think you can only tell by context otherwise.
Alright, thank you.. :) I have just one more question. Would it then accusative been used if I would say: "Fare bir ekmegi yer" or "Fare bu ekmegi yer"? Because in previous examples there were some sentences where it would have been used "Ben elmayi yerim".. Thank you very much for helping :)
Keep in mind though, "Fare bir ekmek yer" is a little more common than the other. :) If you use the accusative in this instance, it kind of gives the meaning of "any given loaf of bread" :)
Basically, if the "direct object" has "the" in it, it will normally correspond to the accusative case in Turkish. Remember, this is only for direct objects and not subjects of sentences :)