In Turkish changing the place of words can give different emphasis on the sentence.
For example: Kitabi o okur - means that he is the one reading the book O kitabi okur - means that what he reads is a book.
So if you ask - who reads the book? You reply with Kitabi o okur
If you ask - what does he read? You reply with O kitabi okur
well, if you write okur o kitabi, that would sound really weird.
The only situation where that would sound ok is if somebody told you that person won't be able to read that book and you say "okur o kitabi", emphasizing he would read that book.
Kitabi o okur means he is the one who would read the book
Kitabi okur o means that he would read the book as opposed to doing something else with the book
I think that's because the r can get devoiced (particularly in word final position), and therefore you only hear the air coming out of the mouth, which to ears of people whose native language(s) don't have that phoneme, sounds like a 'sh' sound.
I believe you also hear it in Scandinavian languages (the dialects that use a trilled r) especially Icelandic. As well as something similar in French, but with a velar/uvular (back of the throat) r, that gets devoiced, and thus sounds a little like when you're coughing up something.
I'm not sure what you're saying. If you cut off the air, you cannot pronounce any voiced nor devoiced sound, at least anything that requires air from your lungs. It means you would "turn off the voicing" before you "cut off the air". An analogy with sounds we have in English would be if you tried to pronounce a "z" or an "v" but devoiced halfway, you would get "zzzzssss" or "vvvvvffff" where you devoice halfway and thus to English-listening ears you hear an "s" and an "f".
yes i got the same impression too. In final position 'r' is pronounced in this way : a very aspirant, whistle-like phoneme. It is not that difficult, just try to pronounce an american 'r' and blow some air out and you'll make it. I don' t know why most textbooks do not talk about that but on the internet you will find tons of descriptions.
You can't say ''Kitap o okur.'', that is right. But you can say ''Kitap okur o.''. It would be an inverted sentence, though. In an indefinite object containing sentence, keeping the said object and its related verb together is important. Because they form the phrase when they are together.
There seems to be a rule that Turkish words cannot end in a [b] sound. In "kitabı", the [b] is not at the end, so it's fine. However, in the bare form of the word, without [ı], the [b] sound changes to [p], which is the voiceless version of [b], because it's now at the end of the word. The only reason I know that [kitab] is the actual form of the word is that this word is a loanword from Arabic, and has a [b] in that language.
No, in Turkish it has to do with vowel harmony. with Okumak, the fact that there is a U before the infinitive ending means it will be an A , -mak. For the other verbs you mention, the vowel is E and I, both of which require an E to be in line with vowel harmony, this ending in -mek. I know that there's something about vowel harmony here at Duolingo, but here's an offsite explanation: https://turkishteatime.com/turkish-grammar-guide/vowel-harmony/
That would be ''Onun okuduğu kitap''. A different method is used to make relative clauses in Turkish.
Kitab(book)-ı(accusative case) o(3rd person singular) oku(read)-r(present tense) (finite verb).
O-nun(possessor marker)(genitive case) oku(read)-duğu(verbal adjective)(in the form of suffix)- Ø(3rd person person marker) kitap(book)