In English, they have slightly different meanings.
"Few don't recognize it." is a round-about way of saying "Many/most recognize it." Its tone is a little sarcastic, as if you're implying to whomever you're talking to that you cannot believe that it is not recognized.
On the other hand, "A few don't recognize it." implies that out of a sample of individuals, a certain, small number of those people are unable to recognize it.
Do these differences also exist in German?
They do not mean the same thing, though.
"This country does not recognize that country" is not the same as "This country does not know that country".
"I think I saw your father yesterday but I didn't recognize him at first" is not the same as "I think I saw your father yesterday but I didn't know him at first".
"I know the answer to the problem" is not the same as "I recognize the answer to the problem"
Similarly in German, kennen is not the same as erkennen.