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This chart will explain which pronouns go with each form of beber. http://www.123teachme.com/spanish_verb_conjugation/beber
The end of the verbs depends on the infinitive verb termination. The terminations are "-ar", "-er" and "-ir". Each conjugation have diferent words end in each personal pronoun. Use a chart and with the time you would remeber http://www.onoma.es/#beber+pronominal=false+tiempos=0$3$+personas=1$2$4$5$8$10$12$13$+paradigma=2
First you should know what they mean in English:
Then the subjunctive mood is used more often in Spanish than it is used in English. http://spanish.about.com/od/verbmoods/a/intro_subjunct.htm
Now, the sentence in this lesson "Yo bebo agua." is a straight fact with no hopes, wishes, feelings, doubt expressed so it is in the indicative mood, just a regular sentence. No need to worry about subjunctive here as Duolingo will teach that later.
I drink water. (any water) "the water" is being very specific. (not just any water - the water....... We are expecting more information such as a brand of bottled water or a prepositional phrase describing what kind of water or which place it came from.) "I eat an apple." works because you can count one apple, but water is not as easily countable unless it is in a container or dripping from a faucet. "a glass of water" or "a drop of water"
Water is always considered to be some water and "some" does not actually need to be specified.
You are right that many Spanish nouns that end in -o are masculine, such as "niño", but the word "bebo" is a verb and that -o ending is given for verbs in the regular indicative mood present tense for "yo" (1st person, singular) to mean "I drink" (I is either, no gender is known. I could be a boy or a girl. Same with "yo"). The different endings for verbs are called conjugations.
Neither -- it's for the "I" form. Spanish doesn't have gendered forms of first person.
Agua IS feminine ALLWAYS. Agua is ALLWAYS feminine [It uses a masculine article in singular since it's a paroxytone (stressed in the 2nd syllable from the end) that starts with an a, if you use the feminine article la with it, it sounds "lagua", so you must use the masculine article el], there a few nouns that can change the gender, that is NOT common. Verbs have NO genders. I drink water is ALLWAYS Yo bebo agua or Yo tomo agua.