In English, we do not consider those three to be equivalent at all.
Enough = just the right amount
The expression "too old" is a comparison form that depends on what you are comparing it to. A toddler can be too old for a pacifier or a bottle, but the child is still very young.
Yes there are some differences. For example some of the determiners in English are adjectives in Turkish. For example:
which way (hangi taraf), this book (bu kitap) etc.
Indefinite articles and numbers before nouns are adjectives in Turkish too.
By the way I found a good example of ÇOK as an adjective in Turkish which I think is a determiner in English again. This is a very old saying:
ÇOK (or FAZLA) naz aşık usandırır. > TOO MUCH coyness will make one's lover weary.