[Grammar] To Be: Copula
There are a few ways to say “to be” in Turkish depending on what you are saying. This is shocking since there is not actual verb “to be.” A suffix is used to form “to be” in the present tense. The suffixes are as follows:
There are a few points to keep in mind:
1) All except the 3rd person pl. suffix follow 4-way vowel harmony.
2) In the 1st person, you will see a buffer “-y-” be used if the adjective or noun ends in a vowel.
3) The suffix -DIr is used to clarify any ambiguity, emphasize, or state facts. This both follows 4-way vowel harmony and has consonant harmony; ‘d’ changes to ‘t’ after the following consonants (f p ç t k s ş h).
4) The suffix -lAr is optional in the 3rd person pl. However, it is only optional when referring to people. This suffix may not be used for items and animals. Only humans!
5) To use “be” as a command in Turkish, the stem of the verb olmak, which means “to become.” All you have to do is take off the -mak and you have the command for “ol.” To make it formal, add the ending -In, which according to 4-way vowel harmony, comes out as “olun.”
A remark on number 3. Please don't use -dir all the time. It's more an encyclopaedic thing, and it has variety of uses. Leave it for now and don't use anything for the 3rd person. And by the way, one phrase to remember the special consonants is: Ketçap fahişesi. (Fahişe means prostitute, might be useful… who knows ;p) And the whole phrase means: Ketchup prostitute, which is nonsensical, but just memorize it for the fun of it and the consonants are: k t ç p f h ş s. Any time you have a "d" or "c" that comes after one of these consonants, you'll say "t" or "ç" instead, for an easier pronunciation.
This might be a really stupid question and please let me know if it is, but in the chart above, every suffix has the letter l.
Is this just a stand-in for the vowel that would be placed there according to vowel harmony? Because in the actual example the letter in that position is a u, not an l which of course would make no sense.