[Grammar] To Be: Copula
There are a few ways to say “to be” in Turkish depending on what you are saying. This is shocking since there is not actual verb “to be.” A suffix is used to form “to be” in the present tense. The suffixes are as follows:
There are a few points to keep in mind:
1) All except the 3rd person pl. suffix follow 4-way vowel harmony.
2) In the 1st person, you will see a buffer “-y-” be used if the adjective or noun ends in a vowel.
3) The suffix -DIr is used to clarify any ambiguity, emphasize, or state facts. This both follows 4-way vowel harmony and has consonant harmony; ‘d’ changes to ‘t’ after the following consonants (f p ç t k s ş h).
4) The suffix -lAr is optional in the 3rd person pl. However, it is only optional when referring to people. This suffix may not be used for items and animals. Only humans!
5) To use “be” as a command in Turkish, the stem of the verb olmak, which means “to become.” All you have to do is take off the -mak and you have the command for “ol.” To make it formal, add the ending -In, which according to 4-way vowel harmony, comes out as “olun.”
A remark on number 3. Please don't use -dir all the time. It's more an encyclopaedic thing, and it has variety of uses. Leave it for now and don't use anything for the 3rd person. And by the way, one phrase to remember the special consonants is: Ketçap fahişesi. (Fahişe means prostitute, might be useful… who knows ;p) And the whole phrase means: Ketchup prostitute, which is nonsensical, but just memorize it for the fun of it and the consonants are: k t ç p f h ş s. Any time you have a "d" or "c" that comes after one of these consonants, you'll say "t" or "ç" instead, for an easier pronunciation.
This might be a really stupid question and please let me know if it is, but in the chart above, every suffix has the letter l.
Is this just a stand-in for the vowel that would be placed there according to vowel harmony? Because in the actual example the letter in that position is a u, not an l which of course would make no sense.
Yes thats the part that I love about Duolingo :) I did not mean to be disrespectful,(elinize sağlık muhteşem bir çalışma ve müthiş bir emek) I was just talking about this topic and meant to adding examples for the 5 rules listed to make a contribution. By the way "Kan kırmızıdır" is a great example of proper use of -dir suffix, thanks ;)
Yes, also. (The stress is different though: kadıNIM vs. kaDInım)
Kadınım (my woman) - kadınım (I'm a woman)
Kadının (your woman) - kadınsın (you are a woman)
Kadını (his woman) - kadın (s/he is a woman)
Kadınımız (our woman) - kadınız (we're women)
kadınınız (your woman) - kadınsınız (you're women)
kadınları (their woman) - kadınlar (they're women)
Can I ask for clarification on number 4. It says that it is only optional when referring to people. From which I infer that it is not option when referring to things, meaning that it is compulsory. However the next senses says it may not be used for items or animals. So, is it actually only ever used for people, and even then, it is optional?
Hey. Thank you for the explanation but sorry, I did not understand. Can anybody take the effort to break down that table into an easier version (you know, without those capitals and symbols) and the 5 rules with more explanation? Thank you very much.
Something of this sort. This was excellent: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/9041808
Also, can anybody explain what consonant harmony is? (If that is a thing). Thanks.
I want to make sure I understand how rules 3 and 4 interact on the 3rd pl. [I know that the -DIr is for other things besides just stating facts, but I'm trying to simplify in these examples.]
3rd pl. about items/animals = no suffix (same as 3rd sing.)
3rd pl. stating facts about items/animals = -DIr (same as 3rd sing.)
3rd pl. about people = no suffix, or optionally -lAr
3rd pl. stating facts about people = -DIr, or optionally -DIrlAr
Can someone clarify whether this is correct? If so, can someone describe the reason I would choose to add/not add the optional -lAr (-DIrlAr) when referring to people?
Thank you! Teşekkür ederim!