In Turkish, they are said the same way because nouns don't change when they're in the subject position. When you come across a random sentence (like on Duolingo) it's impossible to tell if they are general or specific. But in the real world, you will be able to tell from context. :-)
Well, there are a couple differences. Like English, Turkish has two different present tenses. Also, you have a 1st person suffix on the end of "yiyorum" but not on "yer," so I will give you four different words to compare:
- yiyorum = I am eating
- yiyor = he/she/it is eating
- yerim = I eat
- yer = he/she/it eats
There are a couple exceptions, but Duo Turkish will usually keep the two present tenses separate: aorist/simple present (yer/eat) and continuos present (yiyor/eating). However, they are sometimes interchangeable in "the real world" and you will definitely be understood either way. I hope that helps :-)
Additionally you can check this idiom "bir işten ekmek yemek". That means "oh yes you can do this job cause the salary is good enough ! Example 2; - if one person say that to you " Sana buradan ekmek çıkmaz " that Ekmek means here; iş , fayda , kâr . (Job , benefit , any good things or any notable thing ) So Ekmek means here "Notable things" .