Why do animals not follow the rules of the accusative to make it "the cat"? Why isn't it "kediyi"?
it has nothing to do with animals :) accusative case is just for objects, kedi is the subject here
So a sentence is always translated as "the 'subject' ..." if it is appropriate in context?
When using the accusative applied to objects to make it "the orange" for example portakal becomes portakalı. But to say something like "The cat drinks water" it is just "Kedi" so, when used as the subject of a sentence, Adam would be "the man" kadın would be "the woman" kız would be "the girl"?
yes, and "the orange" will be portakal, "the orange is red": portakal kırmızı(dır).
As I said, cases only apply to objects
To my ear kedi sounds like kedı. Is it just my ear not yet adjusted for Turkish, a TTS fault or some kind of vowel accomodation/assimilation? Teşekkür ederim!
kedi should sounds as kedi not kedı. I don't really hear ı here, but it could also be because my ears just hear what they expect to hear :)