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https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Gaga986

Serbian lessons, part 6

Здраво пријатељи, како сте? / Zdravo prijatelji, kako ste?

I hope you have enjoyed reading my last lesson. I first want to thank all of you who are giving me support for what I am doing. It really means a lot. Teaching grammar in one lesson is pretty hard, especially when I have to explain all the rules in English, which is not my mother tongue. But I am doing my best to make this lessons both useful and interesting for all the people who are looking forward them.

Today we will continue with learning Serbian grammar. We have already learned the present tense, so now we will learn how to make the past tense in Serbian language. The past tense is used to describe some action that happened (but not necessarily finished) in the past. We make past tense using present tense of ‘’biti’’ – ‘’to be’’ + past participle. We have already learned the present tense of BITI/БИТИ, but I will write that again, just to be sure, we haven’t forget it.

Ја сам / Ja sam - I am

Ти си / Ti si - You are

Он, она, оно је / On, ona, ono je - He, she, it is

Ми смо / Mi smo - We are

Ви сте / Vi ste - You are

Они, оне, она су / Oni, one, ona su - They are

The past participle endings are:

masculine - singular –o / plural –ли/-li

feminine - sing. –ла/-la / plur. –ле/-le

neuter - sing. -ло/-lo / plur. -ла/-la

The above past participle endings are added to the infinitive stems to make the past participle. The infinitive stem is formed :

-by removing the suffix –TI from the infinitive of verbs ending in -TI (e.g. čita-ti, radi-ti, razume-ti),

-by removing the suffix for the 3rd person plural from the infinitive of verbs ending in -STI or -ĆI (e.g. ugristi, oni ugriz-u; spasti, oni spas-u; peći, oni pek-u; moći, oni mog-u). NOTE: Many verbs form an active past participle from an irregular or reduced infinitive stem:

-ići-išao(go-went); otići-otišao(leave-left); doći-došao(come-came); ući-ušao(enter-enterned)

-jesti-jeo(eat-ate); pasti-pao(fell-fall); sesti-seo(sit-sit);

-stići-stigao(arrive-arrived); pomoći-pomogao(help-helped); umreti-umro(die-died).

Examples

TO WORK – РАДИТИ / RADITI

Inf. sterm is ради-/radi-

Masculine

Ја сам радио / Ja sam radio

Ти си радио / Ti si radio

Он је радио / On je radio

Ми смо радили / Mi smo radili

Ви сте радили / Vi ste radili

Они су радили / Oni su radili

Feminine

Ја сам радила / Ja sam radila

Ти си радила / Ti si radila

Она је радила / Ona je radila

Ми смо радиле / Mi smo radile

Ви сте радиле / Vi ste radile

Оне су радиле / One su radile

Neuter

Оно је радило / Ono je radilo

Она су радила / Ona su radila

The subject of the sentence is frequently omitted. This is possible because the person, number and gender are indicated by an auxiliary and the active past participle. So, you can say just

Радио сам / Radio sam

Радила си / Radila si

Negative form

Verb to sing – ПЕВАТИ / PEVATI

Ја нисам певао / Ja nisam pevao

Ти ниси певала / Ti nisi pevala

Он није певао / On nije pevao

Она није певала / Ona nije pevala

Оно није певало / Ono nije pevalo

Ми нисмо певале / Mi nismo pevale

Ви нисте певале / Vi niste pevale

Они нису певали / Oni nisu pevali

Оне нису певале / One nisu

Она нису певала / Ona nisu pevala

The most common use would be again

Нисам певао / Nisam pevao

Ниси певала / Nisi pevala etc

Interrogative form

As in present tense, we use ДА ЛИ / DA LI to make an interrogative form.

Да ли сам певао? / Da li sam pevao?

Да ли си певала? / Da li si pevao?

Да ли је певало? / Da li je pevalo?

NOTE: A question in the past tense can be answered shortly by using either the affirmative or negative long forms of the verb јесам/jesam (јесам, јеси, јесте, јесмо, јесте, јесу / jesam, jesi, jeste, jesmo, jeste, jesu). A sentence may start with ДА/DA or НЕ/NE, but this is not always necessary. (for example Да ли си јео? (Да), јесам. (Не), нисам. / Da li si jeo? (Da), jesam. (Ne), nisam.)

I hope you understood my explanations; I did my best to make it as easy as it possible :)

Now, I would love to teach you more about my culture. Let me tell you more about СЛАВА / SLAVA.

Slava or Krsna slava is the celebration of the home patron saint. It is one of the greatest characteristics of the national and religious lives of the Serbian people. It is an exclusively Serbian custom and is one of the most important days of the year for most Serbian families. Slava is actually the celebration of the spiritual birthday of the Serbian people. It is based on the day their ancestors first accepted Christianity. Their saint is a “protector of their home”. They pass the saint down from father to son. There are many, many saints but some of the most common are “Nikoljdan” or Saint Nicholas (19th December), “Jovandan” or Saint John (20th January), “Đurđevdan” or Saint George (6th May), and St Sava (27th January) - the slava of Serbian schools etc

A slava celebration depends on the household. Some of the requirements of a slava are:

Picture or icon of the patron saint

Lighted candle or “slavska sveća”-reminds them that Christ is the “light of the world”

Wheat or “žito” usually grown in a small bowl- represents the death and resurrection of Christ.

Slava bread or cake or “slavski kolač”- represents Christ as the bread of life.

Red wine- represents Christs blood

Some celebrate with apples floating in wine or rakija and they try to catch them with their mouths. Also the slava bread is broken and each guest is given a piece. Most slavas are a three day event. There is a saying “where the Serb is, Slava is also” Славски колач / Slavski kolač – slava bread

Rakija is a fruit brandy popular in the Balkans. It is widely considered to be а national drink of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. Many countries produce similar fruits brandies which are listed here by their local names:

Albania: rakia

Bosnia and Herzegovina: rakija

Bulgaria: ракия, ичкия

Croatia: rakija

Macedonia: ракија

Montenegro: ракија/rakija

Romania: rachiu/răchie, ţuică, palincă

Serbia: ракија/rakija

Slovenia: rakija

Rakija is one of the most popular alcoholic drinks in Serbia. It is the national drink of Serbia and is globally identified with Serbian culture. Serbia is the world's largest rakia producer and drinks more rakia per capita than any other country. There are many kinds of rakija:

Plum (slivovitz) - šljivovica, шљивовица

Grapes – lozovača, лозовача

Pear - kruškovača/vilijamovka, крушковача/виљамовка

Quince - dunjevača, дуњевача

Cherry – višnjevača, вишњевача

And many others. Надам се да сте уживали, видимо се ускоро! Nadam se das te uživali, vidimo se uskoro! I hope you enjoyed, see you soon!

Gaga

March 29, 2015

17 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Lexi_Paloma

Super, svaka čast! :) Baš mi se sviđa način na koji predstavljaš srpsku gramatiku, ali takođe i srpsku kulturu i tradiciju. Drago mi je ako sam ti svojim savetom pomogla oko izbora teme za današnji post. Svako dobro ti želim, i još jednom sve pohvale. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Gaga986

Hvala ti puno, draga! Jesi, mnogo si mi pomogla, ima toliko toga da se ispriča o nama da ne znam odakle bih krenula. Saveti su uvek dobrodošli (smišljaj polako za sledeći put) :) Hvala ti još jednom, podrška mi mnogo znači :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Lexi_Paloma

Drago mi je da to čujem. :) Važi, smisliću već nešto, pa ću ti javiti. Još jednom svaka ti čast, i samo napred. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Marko195

Gaga, svaka čast! Baš mi se sviđa i ovaj post, mnogo si se potrudila oko toga, a i vrlo lepo od tebe što si napisala o srpskoj kulturi i tradiciji :) Ovo je baš teško objasniti i to na engleskom koji ti nije maternji jezik, ali si uspela u svakom slučaju. :) Naša gramatika je vrlo teška i komplikovana za razliku od engleske koja je jako prosta i laka pa strancima je naporno da uče srpski jezik mada svako može da nauči ako se potrudi. Osim toga, samo tako nastavi i sve pohvale ! :) P.s. nadajmo se da će "Duolingo" ubaciti naš jezik na kurs uskoro!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Gaga986

Hvala ti puno Marko. Veruj da mi je baš teško da sve ovo objasnim na engleskom, ali se trudim da to uradim najbolje što mogu. Našu gramatiku je teško objasniti i na srpskom, a ne tek na engleskom :) Hvala ti puno još jednom na podršci, trudiću se da nas predstavaljam u što boljem svetlu ovde :) I ja se nadam tome, valjda ćemo i mi doći na red uskoro :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/het_aapje

Хвала! I've added it here :) Thank you for teaching me more about your culture! :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Gaga986

Нема на чему :) As I always say, I love to share the best part of my culture with the world :) I am glad you like it. Can't wait for your 'Дуо иде у Србију' :)))


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Tvistnek

Preporučujem da za sledeći segment o kulturi spomeneš možda Vidovdan, pošto si ovde dotakla neke važne datume u srpskoj kulturi, pa bi to dodatno dopunilo ovo što je već spomenuto. :D

Lepo predstavljaš gramatiku i sve komplikovane delove, što i pokazuje koliki će biti problem da se sve dobro ukarika kada to jest ako Duolingo tim da mogućnost da se napravi kurs za govornike engleskog.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Gaga986

Vidiš mogla bih to, totalno sam zaboravila na Vidovdan. O njemu svakako ima dosta da se piše, a i zanimljivo je. Hvala ti puno. Čega god da se setiš, slobodno mi javi, lakše mi je ponekad kad mi i drugi daju ideje :) Mnogo mi je komplikovano da sve objasnim na engleskom, al se trudim da uprostim koliko mogu. Biće teško, ali se svejedno nadam da će nam dati šansu. Videćemo sada kako će ukrajinski, a kasnije i ❤❤❤❤❤ kurs, uspeti da se izbori sa sličnim problemima.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/-Feodor-

Thank you! Hope you get around to making a Duo goes to Serbia post sometime soon!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/het_aapje

Hopefully it wont be too long! :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Gaga986

You're welcome :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LexicalIvan

I hope that a Serbo-Croatian course is added to the incubator soon!

If a course was to be added though, would both cyrillic and latin be accepted? Or just cyrillic?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Gaga986

We have no idea. If they decide to make only Serbian course, not Serbo-Croatian, I would rather chose Cyrillic, but we will see once when they allow us to do it. Thank you for your support :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/GeniusJack

This is really amazing, my dear Gaga! :D Thank you so much!! Your explanations were excellent! :) The Slava celebration seems wonderful, and the Slava bread looks delicious! :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Gaga986

I am glad you like it, my dear Jack :) One day you will see in person how Slava celebration looks like :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DanieltheHun

Thanks for the hard work you've put in so far! I love the mini lessons in the prior posts. In the first lesson you said you were working on a Serbian course with some others! When can we expect the course to go live?

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