I am quite often confused about the word order. Compare the following sentences: "Corba tuzlu iceriz." (We eat the soup with salt.) "Seninle kitap okuruz." (We read the book with you.) Sometimes the word with the 'with'-suffix stands in the middle and sometimes at the beginning of the sentence. Can anybody explain? (p.s.: That is not the only example of unexplained and confusing word order here!)
"Çorba tuzlu içeriz" is not correct. It should be either "Çorbayı tuzlu içeriz" which means "we eat the soup salty" or "Tuzlu çorba içeriz" which means "we eat salty soup" or even "Tuzlu çorbayı içeriz" which is "we eat the salty soap".
The word order is different because these are different suffixes "-lı/-li/-lu/-lü" makes adjectives. Whereas "-la/-le" makes adverbs. This latter one is actually a short form of the word "ile" which can also mean "ve".
Check out the meaning of these two sentences:
Ekmeği peynirle yerim. Ekmeği peynirli yerim.
Yakin Alan, thank you for your great explanation! Could you please define this too: Çorbayı tuzlu içeriz - we eat the soup salty, seems to be a general preference, it is not about the specific soup. On the contrary, Tuzlu çorbayı içeriz, is the way to refer to a specific soup. Is this correct?
"-lı/-li/-lu/-lü" makes adjectives. "-la/-le" makes adverbs and nouns. It is the short form of the word "ile" which can also mean "ve". Actually, this is the instrumental suffix. Both may mean "with" in English but there are other words or forms like "by" or "-ed" suffix. I will try to make it clear. Hope I can :)
Tek gözlü adama baktı = He looked at the one eyed man Tek gözle adama baktı = He looked at the man using (his) one eye (one eye closed)
Peynirli makarna yedi = He ate cheesed pasta Peynirle makarna yedi = He ate cheese with pasta
The second one can also mean "He ate cheese and pasta" because it is actually "Peynir ile makarna yedi". Here one can substitute "ve" and say "Peynir ve makarna yedi".
As you can see "Peynirli" is an adjective, however, "Peynirle" is actually "Peynir+ile" and part of the subject itself.
The second one, the "-le/-la" form, is also the instrumental case when it is employed as an adverb. For example:
Okula arabayla geldi = He came to school by car
You can still use the second form since in Turkish "All adjectives can be employed as adverbs as they are". But the meaning will be quiet different. So you may hear "Okula arabalı geldi" in colloquial which actually means "He has his car with him at school".
I hope it is a bit more clear. Please ask if anything has confused you.
You are right about the first part (and it was just a forgotten alternative that has now been added).
To answer your second question, general direct object do not take the accusative case in Turkish. If you say "Kitabı okuruz," it would mean "We read the book."
You are always welcome. I will try to explain as simple as possible.
Adjectives and adverbs. In English, there is more or less a clear-cut distinction between these two. In Turkish, this distinction is vaguer. Starting from adjectives I can say that: any adjective of quality (answer to a “How is it?” question) can be directly used as an adverb in case it is meaningful. Generally, we can say that in case you use the suffix "-ly" in English for making an adverb in Turkish you will just use the adjective as is. It is just like " fast (adj.) - fast (adv.)" in English.
Hızlı: Fast, Araba hızlı geldi - The car came fast Sıcak: Hot, Yemeğini sıcak yedi - He ate his meal hot Zor: Hard, Soruyu zor çözdü - He hardly solved the question Yavaş: Slow, Yavaş yürüdü - He walked slowly İyi:Good, İyi gidiyor - It is going well
On the other side of the question, adverbs and other complements need a suffix in order to become an adjective. This suffix is called "Sıfat Yapan -ki" (Adjective Making -ki). Let me give examples on temporal adverbs.
Sabah: Morning ----> Sabahki yemek çok lezzetliydi. The meal in the morning was very delicious. Akşam: Evening -----> Akşamki çaya davetlisin. You are invited to evening tea.
As you may notice this suffix does not obey the vowel harmony. There are two exceptions to this rule which you should know by heart.
Dün: Yesterday ---> Dünkü ---> Dünkü maç çok heyecanlıydı. - Yesterday's match was very exciting. Bugün: Today -----> Bugünkü ----> Bugünkü derse çalıştın mı? - Did you study today's lesson?
I hope this may help. Please don't hesitate to ask again if you feel something is still missing. Best regards.