Translation:Bir yıl sonra, öğrenciler İngilizce bilecekler.
why is not "Bir yil sonra ogrenciler ingilizce konusacak" accepted here, since in previous cases I know English and I speak English where accepted for Ingilizce biliyorum?
"I speak English." in English usually means "I know English.", "I can speak English.". In Turkish it's "I know English.", "İngilizce biliyorum.".
"know" or "speak" (being able to speak) = "bilmek".
But "İngilizce konuşuyorum." has only the literal meaning - the act of speaking the language. I don't think it implies knowing English or the ability to speak it.
"konuşmak" = "speak" (actually speaking).
"Bir yil sonra ogrenciler ingilizce konusacak." means that the students will actually speak the language at some point in a year, not that they'll know it in a year.
Quantifiable time phrases + time adverbs don't generally take case endings. Case endings are reserved for events and other specific unquantified things.
So "beş dakika sonra" = five minutes later vs "ameliyattan sonra." = after the surgery.
Or, maybe to make the point a little clearer, "bu yıldan sonra" = after this year vs "bir yıl sonra" = one year later.
I am not getting the order of adverbs/indications of time. I wrote Sonra bil yil, öğrenciler İngilizce bilecekler. Why is this wrong? Is it just awkward, or does it change the meaning?
I think "sonra" is a postposition. So you put it after the noun phrase that you want to modify (in this care "Bir yıl"). Like in "oğleden sonra". Same goes for "önce" and a bunch of the words.
Why is 'the students' it not "ogrencileri"? Is the first word after the comma classed as the subject in this case?