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No, prepositions don't always require "de" ("de" itself is a preposition) for example the preposition "a" or "con" typically aren't followed by a "de".
But many times "de" is used as part of a prepositional phrase such as 'al lado de', 'en lugar de', or 'en vez de'. http://spanish.about.com/od/prepositions/a/compound_prep.htm
In this case "under" can be translated in two ways: 'bajo' (which doesn't require a "de") and 'debajo de' (which does require a "de" as part of a prepositional phrase).
Yes, I did notice. Sombrero is a loan word and absolutely does exist in English as such: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/sombrero?q=sombrero
No, it's still not an exact translation. Sombrero in English means a specific type of hat (Mexican), whereas sombrero in Spanish simply means any hat.
Sombrero in English translates to "sombrero mexicano" or "sombrero de charro" in Spanish.
So if the Spanish phrase said "sombrero de charro", you could translate it to English as "sombrero". Otherwise, it translates to "hat" to preserve the meaning.
Yes, depending on the context it can either mean "under/below" or "short/small".
Hay is the equivalent for 'there is/are', as in There are three apples on the table. It is an impersonal conjugation from the verb 'haber'.
literally, no hay de qué means there is not of what, i.e., there is nothing [to thank], which is why the idiom is used after thank you.
You would probably either find out a similar expression in Spanish, not translate it at all, or have to actually explain the phrase in a paragraph or two of Spanish. "Keep it under your hat" is an idiom and idioms aren't shared in all languages, so you can't translate it into Spanish (literally) and expect someone to know what you're talking about. Best bet, find a similar idiom in Spanish, or just say "keep it a secret".
abajo can mean down or downstairs. For instance:
- ¿Dónde está mi hermano?
Baja abajo al sótano, por favor (sometimes in Spanish we are redundant; obviously 'bajar' means going down)
'bajo', as adverb (it is also an adjective meaning 'short' (people) or 'low'), means under or below, and needs an object to have sense:
"Bajo la luna llena, los espíritus acechan"
I liked the lesson with all the weird cat things like the cat sleeps on top of the monkey the cat sleeps among the dogs the cat walks on my shirt the cat walks over my skirt [wich i don't have one so that doesn't even make sence] and i don't care if i misspelled anything.
I think the translation is too literal and this sentence should be more accurately translated into "what do you have under your hat?" but DL doesn't even accept that. In spanish, often you replace the possesive pronoun with the definite article. E.g., ".¿Qué tienes en la mano?", which literally means "what do you have in the hand?", a ridiculously sounding sentence in English, but it really means "what do you have in your hand? ". When you say what do you have under the hat in English, to me it sounds like the hat is not on your head, but instead on the table or in your hand, for example. Whereas in spanish, it is more likely on your head.