Would it be wrong to say "he came after you went out"?
I have the same question.
is the use of "que" not superfluous? Is it really needed?
Without the "que" it's not the same phrase: "ele veio. depois você saiu"("he came and you left.") With the "que" is like "you just left and he came". Sorry, it's very confuse to me to explain, i hope you understand.
Can you also say: depois de você sair?
on the pronunciation of 'depois'
I've heard it pronounced 'gepois' can it be pronounced as 'depois' as well?
Well, where I live we pronounce DE like gee at the end of a word or when it is by itself as a preposition (of). The others are normal "de"
ok, so it's a regional thing, so in words like depressa or demais, I can expect to hear it either way, thank you
What does veio had to do with saw?
That would be "viu" (also an irregular preterite form), based on "ver" (to see), not "vir" (to come). I, too, frequently confuse the two.