yeterince is ALWAYS an adverb and will modify adjectives and verbs. It's generally more like "sufficiently" or "... to suffice"
yeterli is GENERALLY an adjective and will modify nouns. It's generally translatable as "enough X" or "sufficient X"
yeterince yağ var. = There's oil enough to suffice.
yeterli yağ var. = There's sufficient oil.
Not a HUGE difference here, but other sentences are more picky. If you're modifying a verb, you'll have to use yeterince. yeter or yeterli won't work: "Yeterince bekledim." = I've waited enough.
There is not much to say but for example you can say
'Yeterince param yok.' (I don't have enough money.) or
'Bugün yeterince su içtim.'(I drank enough(sufficient amount of) water today.)
But 'yeterince' might have a more limited use and i guess there are places where only one of them can be used.
In English, at least in contemporary usage, "enough" comes after an adjective to specify the degree of that adjective (eg. "good enough", "big enough", "rich enough", "far enough") and before a noun to specify amount ("enough money", "enough water", "enough rice", "enough people", "enough oil").
Basically, you can't say "There's oil enough." (There are potentially dialects where the rules are a bit different, and older forms of English seemed to have different rules too, but what I've said applies to most varieties of modern English.)