"Onun arkadaşı da benim arkadaşım."
Translation:Her friend is also my friend.
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Dost is one of those that can be considered "personal vocabulary". Some people use it, some people don't. I don't think I've ever used "dost", in the sense of "best friend", in my life. Sure, there are some expressions such as the adverb "dostça" or the noun "dostluk", and so on. But other than that, it's not a common word for many people.
There are people who use "dostum" in the meaning of "dude" or "bro", but it's not very widespread.
Also some old people use "dost" in the meaning of a ❤❤❤❤-buddy, like: "Onun dostu var, diyorlar."
Anyway, long story short: Dost isn't as common a word as arkadaş is. To translate "my best friend", just say "en iyi arkadaşım" just to be on the safe side.
As you just said, it's personal; in itself it is no less common, nor that ambiguous, if the context is right. Slangs give color to language, and can be used to not appear as a tourist, at least, and appear more as an "insider", at most. Not anyone is coming as a tourist, nor a business person... nor has problems with little street chitchats.
"dost" has a persian origin (دوست) which simply means "friend", and used mainly so. We, Turkmens, also use "dost" in Turkmen language to generally mean "friend" too, and nothing else.
Say, what's your opinion about "kanka", "kirve", and "lan" then?
kanka is used more often than "dost" as far as I've experienced. "Kirve" is just a dying word. I hear it like once every other year.
Lan has nothing to do with this topic. It's a slang vocative interjection.
If someone said "Ali benim dostum," it would sound a bit…pretended to my ears. It doesn't sound sincere to me. "En iyi arkadaşım" feels to be a more natural thing to say. Maybe it's just me, though. I don't know what other natives think about this.
I have the sense that lan is a slang word that had derived in time by dropping of sounds from the word oglan (boy/lad/chap). People (mostly men) may --very informally-- interject this exclamation when talking to a boy they know very well. They may also use it for boys they do not now if it is not deemed improper in the context. It is not at all used when addressing girls.
If the utterer is using this word against a grown-up whom he does not know, then know that in most of the cases there is an indication of aggressiveness inherent.
A Turkish native explained to me onece "Arkadaş is just any kind of friend. Dost is like your best friend. You can tell him everything." At some point it also seemed like people used it like boyfriend (not exactly ❤❤❤❤-buddy, though). Then also, they asked my, if I had an "erkek arkadaş" (or was it erkek arkadaşı?), a boyfriend. What is the natives' opinion here? Thanks a lot in advance!