Hey, thanks! Book marking that link. If a word is a english cognate, one can look it up in an English dictionary. But there are some words that have me scratching my head. For example, o cachorro for dog. All the other Romance languages derive their word for dog from the the Latin canis. Your dictionary reference led me to the origin of the Portuguese term from dog as a different Latin word, catulus.
If you want to say "You have milk" is preferable to say "Você tem leite" to determine your sentence direct to "you". If you don't use "Você" then is not clear if you mean "you have" or "there is". "Tem leite" more likely means "there is milk" in general in the informal (colloquial) way. It is the same meaning by saying "Há leite".
I have a university level text book (written in 1971) that presents a course in EP. In the final chapter the author makes a few comments about BP and this one is relevant:
In the spoken language (and occasionally in the written language) there is a growing tendency for "ter" to replace "haver" to render "there is/there were" etc.
So what you say was certainly true 40 years ago and is still true today.
This and that are two completely different things. 'This' is near to you, whereas 'that' is away from you. For example: 'I have this t-shirt' as opposed to 'I have that t-shirt' because the t-hirt is either with you/close to you, or away from you (as could be necessary to point at it).
I know this is a weird question, but when I checked the Google translation, for "there is milk in that bottle" it was "há leite..." rather than "tem". A little further research shows it's the verb 'haver', another form of to be? Sounds complicated but it would be nice to know what the distinction means.