"Okulun kenarında park var."
Translation:There is a park by the school.
yes, I understand that. I only don't understand what's the difference between "near" and "next to" or "by"!
"Next to" and "by" generally mean that the two places are adjacent to each other, while near just means they are close.
So in this example, imagine we are walking down the street and there is a school. Then, as we walk past the school, immediately there is a park. Then we keep walking, and there is a hospital.
So the park is next to or by both the hospital and the school.
The hospital is near the school, because they are not next to each other, but they are still close.
What is meant by Park in Turkish??
Is it the place where you park your car or the place where you go with your family to have fun or both meanings are accepted exactly as in English????
Only the latter. I think you are thinking of the British "carpark" or the American "parking lot" which would be "otopark" in Turkish.