No, it only works in some languages.
English and French accept: "I see" and "je vois", but for example Italian "vedo" can't be used in this way, even though it's in the same language group as French. So… really… I have no idea how the verb "to see" even got that meaning. ;p
The semantic link is via perception. To perceive (well) is to understand. It's common across a great deal of languages around the world. Another perception verb (hear) can behave likewise. English "I hear you" and French "je vous entends" can both mean "I understand", as does the Italian "intendo".