Latin for Duolingo: Basics, Lesson 3
Please note this course is now available on Wikiversity
My goal is to offer at least one Latin lesson per week until such time as you can get a "real" Latin course on Duo, or until I run out of ideas for how to go on, whichever comes first. Please forgive any formatting issues.
New grammar this lesson: the accusative case. In Latin, nouns functioning as a direct object are put in the accusative case. Nouns are listed in vocabulary lists with nominative and genitive singular (aqua, aquae (f.) or aqua, -ae = water). To use water as a direct object, then, the accusative ending will need to be swapped in for the nominative or subject case. We do not notice this with neuter nouns like malum, -i = apple, because they are the same in the nominative and accusative. But nouns classified as masculine or feminine will have different endings if they are used as a direct object. This lesson also we will be working on verb conjugations in singular only. And for fun, I'm introducing some common Latin names to give our sentences some personality.
Gaius, -i (m.) = Gaius (common Roman praenomen)
Marcus, -i (m.) = Marcus
Lucia, -ae (f.) = Lucia (feminine form of Lucius; not a lot of variety in Roman names, but it's good practice with masculine and feminine endings)
Paula, -ae (f.) = Paula
aqua, -ae (f.) = water. (You will need also to learn the accusative singular = aquam for this lesson.)
panis, -is (m.) = bread (this is a 3rd declension noun; note that the genitive singular ending is a marker for which declension a noun belongs to, and each declension has its own set of endings and gender rules which will be learned in a later lesson). You will need to learn the accusative singular = panem for this lesson.
saccharum, -i (n.) = sugar (a Late Latin construction; of course the Romans would have used mel, mellis (n.) = honey). Accusative singular is also saccharum or mel since both are neuter nouns.
bibo = I drink
bibis = you (s.) drink
bibit = he, she, it drinks
edo = I eat
edis = you eat
edit = he, she, it eats
(also review sum=I am, es=you are, est=h/s/i is, and subject pronouns ego=I, tu=you, is=he, ea=she)
Panis est. = It is bread.
Aqua est. = It is water.
(Ego) edo. = I eat.
Gaius est puer. = Gaius is a boy.
Gaius aquam bibit. = Gaius drinks water.
Vir aquam bibit. = The man drinks water.
Lucia est femina. = Lucia is a woman.
(Tu) edis. = You eat.
(Ego) saccharum edo. = I eat sugar.
(Ego) bibo. = I drink.
(Tu) panem edis. = You eat bread.
(Tu) bibis. = You drink.
Aquam bibis. = You drink water.
Marcus bibit. = Marcus drinks.
(Is) bibit. = He drinks.
(Ea) bibit. = She drinks.
Tu es Paula. = You are Paula.
Gaius sum. = I am Gaius.
Gaius panem edit. = Gaius eats bread.
Ego malum edo. = I eat an apple.
(Tu) saccharum edis. = You eat sugar.
You now have enough basic vocabulary to go on creating quite simple sentences for a while. We will add plurals soon, maybe next lesson. Habeatis bonam fortunam!
Actually, that's a pretty incorrect way of looking at it, because you're never supposed to cut off the entire -are from the 1st conjugation, just -re as in the 2nd and 4th, especially since in the imperative I you'd basically be backtracking. It's just that the -ao of the 1st person sg. melds into ō.
Also forgot to mention that despite being incorrect, it also makes making other tenses from the present stem more tedious: ama + ba + m/s/t/mus/tis/nt becomes am + aba +m/s/t/mus/tis/nt. This may not seem like much, but when you teach that to somebody instead of saying that you use present stem + ba + m/s/t/mus/tis/nt for the I and II conjugation and present stem + eba + m/s/t/mus/tis/nt for the III and IV conjugation, you have to tell them to use present stem + aba/eba/eba/ieba + m/s/t/mus/tis/nt for each of the conjugations, which is completely and utterly stupid.
Salve, fellow Latin teacher here.
It might be a good idea to write out the whole dictionary entry initially, rather than abbreviating in order to make clear how exactly the word declines. For example: femina, feminae (f), rather than femina, -ae (f). If you area new student, it is not entirely clear, what the "-ae" attaches to.
Are you following a particular text like CLC for these sentences or just picking some of your own vocabulary? I teach high school Latin and can give you any help/resources you might want to flesh these out or continue them.
To create a directory, just start a new post titled something like "Latin Lessons Directory". To add the lessons, link the posts to the directory. To link a post, write the text you want in square brackets , then immediately after the closed square bracket, put regular brackets and the link in them. So this will look like [Text to be clicked on].(www.pagelink.com) - of course, without the full stop/period between the ] and ( - here's an example of my directory and how the link works: Ethiopia/Amharic Posts Directory.
They're not usually the first verbs introduced... both are in the 3rd conjugation so a little more complex to teach. But I'm following the Duo framework for now. It's kind of fun to explore the conversational aspect a bit, but it's definitely not the usual order for grammatical style teaching.