"The author's cat"
Why is it kedisi and not kedi? Can't you make something like this: yazarin kedi sütü içer?
in Turkish both the possessor and the possessed object are marked by a suffix
Were you contributing to the lessons? Is that why your name, Selcen, is in a couple?? :)
yes you can see the contributions here https://www.duolingo.com/course/tr/en/Learn-Turkish-Online
kedinin is "the cat's ..." and you're left wondering what the cat is owning.
Possession is marked with the genitive case on the owner and the possessive ending on the possession.
So you have yazar·ın "author·'s" kedi·si "cat·his". Literally "the author's his cat", but in English we just say "the author's cat".
of course they do, all suffixes except for -YOR (present continuous) follow the vowel harmony
that's true :) but I guess that's because there is always another suffix before -ken (gelirken, geliyorken etc)
I am not getting the idea of vowel harmony here plus these exceptions!! Can you guys refere me to a note or any other source about that?
Yazar + in/-ın/-un/-ün = Yazarın
We want to make the vowels the same. Here, the word's last vowel is "a", but the suffix has no a-option. So we're going to have to choose the best from what we have.
→ "-in" would go well with "e" or "i"
→ "-ın" would go well with "a" or "ı" (which we have in "yazar")
→ "-un" would go well with "o" or "u"
→ "-ün" would go well with "ö" or "ü"
Kedi + sı/-si/-su/-sü = Kedisi
Here it's easy. The last vowel of "kedi" is an "i", and luckily we have the i-option amongst the suffixes: -si.
As for the exceptional suffixes, there are very few suffixes that are simply not harmonized:
-ki (denoting possession) : Ahmed'inki; Jessica'nınki; Igor'unki etc. (except for the words bugünkü (today's) and dünkü (yesterday's)).
-yor (denoting the present continuous) : geliyor ; üşüyor ; kaçıyor
-ken (denoting simultaneity) : giderken ; uyurken ; ölürken
-gil (denoting someone's house) : Ahmedgil ; Igorgil, Jessicagil
I also find it very confusing to point out exceptions and ending we are not studying yet. Please keep it basic
Me too! You are not alone. I honestly wish there were new more relevant sentence structures I'd actually use not, : The cat eats frogs (in Turkish.)
-gil, -ken, -leyin, -mtırak, -yor, -daş, -ki suffixes don't follow vowel harmony.
Yes there are exceptions. Some examples for not following ones: akşamki, duvardaki, karşıki, onunki, yarınki, yoldaki
I know. It is very difficult sometimes.
Please, be kind as always writting us what does those suffixes mean? :) thank you :)
-gil has a meaning of ... and others. For example: Teyzemgil bizi ziyaret etti: My aunt and others(probably his husband and children) visited us. Or maybe 'Denizlerle evi temizleyeceğiz: We're going to clean the house with Deniz and others(depends on the context). You can use also the plural marker '-ler' for this function.
-ken replaces the function of while. For example: Pencereden dışarı bakarken güzel bir kedi gördüm: I saw a pretty cat while i was looking out of the window.
-leyin can be used with limited words so here they are: akşamleyin(in the evening(time)), sabahleyin(in the morning(time)), öğlenleyin(at the noon(time)), geceleyin(at the night(time)). There may be some other words that i can't remember now.
-ımtırak corresponds to -ish but is used only for colors. For example: kırmızımtırak(reddish), yeşilimtırak(greenish),sarımtırak(yellowish)...
-yor is the present continuous tense marker. For example: Onun nerede olduğumu bilmesi için bir not yazıyorum: I am writing a note to let her know where i am. Warning: English and Turkish continuous tenses don't necessarily overlap each other.
-daş has a meaning of being in the same group. For example: Arkadaşımın kardeşi ben meslektaşım: My friend's sister/brother has the same job as mine. or 'Düş' ve 'rüya' anlamdaş sözcüklerdir: 'Düş' and 'rüya' have the same meaning.
-ki is used to make relative clauses. For example: Yarınki maçın biletleri sende mi: Do you have the tickets for the match which will take place tomorrow. or Otobüs durağındaki kız bize bakıyor: The girl at the bus stop is looking at us.
The last one may look somewhat confusing. So here are more examples.
Bu araba seninki, bu araba benimki: This car is yours(the one belonging to you), this car is mine(the one belonging to me).
Arkadaki masada oturan kadın işteki arkadaşlarımdan biri: The woman sitting at the table behind is one of my friends at the job.
Odandakini buraya getir: Bring the one(pillow) in your room.
Odandaki yastığı buraya getir: Bring the pillow in your room.
This is a possessive ending. In Turkish both things being possessed and possessors have a suffix. For example:
Gemi (boat) Benim gemim (My boat) Onun gemisi (His/Her/Its boat) Sizin geminiz (Your boat)