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  5. "Arabayı sen kullan!"

"Arabayı sen kullan!"

Translation:Drive the car!

April 12, 2015



Is 'sen' optional ?


çok teşekkürler


which is the change in the meaning if it is used?


I would guess the difference between "Drive the car!" and "You drive the car!" -- emphasising that it's you who is being asked to drive the car and not anyone else.


Right, and more specifically, even though it is in the imperative mood, the sentence by itself is not necessarily an order; it could also, for example, be the answer to the choice question "Should I drive the car, or do you want to drive the car?" In that case, the answer is still "You drive the car" in both English and Turkish, but the meaning is different, even though both uses are grammatically identical in writing. That is to say, you'd need either contextual or tonal clues to differentiate the cases.

In any case, 'sen' is a hidden subject in the sentence "Arabayı kullan" so it is assumed anyhow, mostly because of the way the verb is conjugated. In fact, you would add 'sen' in parentheses when analyzing the sentence and mark it as a hidden subject: (sen) arabayı kullan. There are some cases where not including the subject can disrupt the flow of conversation or cause confusion, though.

Come to think of it, if you assume this sentence is the answer to the choice question proposed above, 'sen' would now be REQUIRED, as it is a direct answer to "you or me?" and to complete the question-answer pair, you need the actual answer. So the answer to the question "Arabayı ben mi kullanayım, yoksa sen mi kullanırsın?" needs to have either 'sen' ("Arabayı sen kullan / You drive the car.") or 'ben' ("Arabayı ben kullanırım / I will drive the car.") as a subject. That is, you cannot use a hidden subject to answer a question asking you about the subject, so 'sen' would be required.

As you said, using an explicit subject also can be used to differentiate exactly who you want driving the car out of a group of people. In that case, it would not be uncommon to hear it coupled with a name, such as "So and so, you drive the car." I guess in that sense, you'd expect the subject to be explicit, but no meaning is lost if you do not include the subject, i.e. "So and so, drive the car." I cannot think of a situation in which an actual order would lose its meaning because the subject is hidden, but I'm sure there are cases for which it does.

So while it is generally true that the subject is optional, there are many cases where it is either mandatory or expected. When in doubt, I'd say include it. The worst it will do is sound awkward, which is much better than not being understood at all.


Mostly emphasis and undertones in spoken language. The meaning at face value is still the same.


Is it a Turkish word and what's the difference in usage to 'sürmek'?


There is no difference, but "kullanmak" is more common. Also, important to note since I am eating breakfast right now, "sürmek" can also mean "to spread."


Thank you very much. Danke. Why is it impossible to drag and drop (in the App) the comments. It would be great to copy some explanations to a private electronic defter :(


I take screenshots of helpful comments. And keep them in a specific folder in my gallery.


Why does the translation say "use" when it says "drive" in the correction?


Why isn't "kullanmak" conjugated?


It is - it's the imperative form, which is formed by removing the infinitive ending -mAk and adding nothing.

So you could say that the imperative involves a zero morpheme -- a bit like how in English, you can take an infinitive such as play and add -s to get he plays or -ed to get we played or -ing to get they were playing... or you can add nothing to get I play. That's also a conjugation, just one where you don't add anything.


Thank you for your answer, I got it now!


Intrigued to know the origin of the word for car - presumably nothing to do with Arabs?


Occording to Sesli Sözlük, it comes from the Russian word for cart: арба (arba)... but that just makes me wonder if it could be from Arabic's number 4: أربعة (arbah)-- as in four wheels.

Any Turkish etymologists want to satisfy our curiosity?


Nişanyan's etymological dictionary compares it to a Sanskrit word and says the word was probably loaned into Turkish from some Iranian language, but that the sound changes involved are not clear:


OTü araba at arabası ≈ Saka rraha a.a. ≈ Ave raθa- a.a. ≈ Sans rátha- रथ iki tekerlekli tören arabası

→ rahvan

Not: At arabası ilk kez MÖ 2000 dolayında Ural Dağlarının güneyinde Proto-Indo-Aryan diline mensup Andronovo kültürü tarafından imal edildi. Türkçe sözcüğün bu dilin devamı olan bir İrani dilden alıntı olduğu muhakkaktır. Ancak ses evriminin mahiyeti açık değildir. • Kaşgarî sözlüğünde yer verilmemiş olması, 11. yy Türkçesinde henüz "yabancı sözcük" olarak algılandığını gösterir. • Ar ˁarrāda(t) عرّادة ve Lat raeda "araba, özellikle iki tekerli tören arabası" İrani dillerden alıntıdır.


I did NOT expect such a fast reply! Thanks!! Teşekkürler! :-)


"Kullan" means "Use" or "drive"???


I believe that "kullan" = "use" and "sürmek" = drive.


Like many Turkish words (or so it seems to me), kullanmak has a range of meanings.

The core meaning is "use" but when the object is araba, a translation of "drive" makes more sense.

See e.g. http://tureng.com/en/turkish-english/araba%20kullanmak


"Arabayı sen kullan"! = ("You drive the car"!)

"Arabayı kullan"! = ("Drive the car"!)


In other words Duolingo is not 100% correct?


"Araba" has the same word in arabic for "car" : Araba = عربة =car And it means a carriage with two wheels drivin by an animal... Although the most used word for car nowadays in arabic is "سيارة" And it means the thing that walks


Arabayi kullan Translated as drive the car... Whereas kullanmeans use


I would translate drive the car as arabayı sür.


Surely this means 'You drive the car' No you in the options, but seems wron to me.


I thought “surmek” meant drive


Hi Jennie, Kullanmak is also a word that can be used to drive. It is probably used more commonly than Sürmek. There are many words in Turkish that have two or more variants e.g. Sene and yıl for year. Remember also that the verb itself can be interpreted in various wats too. For example Sürmak can mean to drıve, to spread, to plot, to rub, to last or to contınue. Kullanmak can mean; to use, to drive, to take something. Kullanmak I always think of as to use and in this way it also works in Turkish, because we (in English) say use the car - meaning drive the car, or I will use the car today, meaning I will drive the car today. Hope this helps.


Tesekkurler Bill


Why is the word “sen” even in this sentence?

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