GRAMMAR Italian Verb Conjugation Rules

note: I don't know if this has already been posted anywhere else, but I can't seem to find anything like this in the discussions area. If this is repetitive of information elsewhere, just let me know and I'll remove it. :)

I know duolingo is supposed to a different kind of learning experience, that's more natural immersion and less rote memorization, but personally I find it easier to memorize a few verb conjugation rules and know how to conjugate most regular verbs. For anyone else out there who's like me, I hope this helps! :)

(rules apply to regular verbs in present tense only)

Rules of conjugation: to conjugate an infinitive, take off the infinitive stem (-are, -ere, or -ire) and replace it with the designated conjugated stem (see below.)

For example: (capital letters are stems) mangiARE (to eat) turns into mangiO (I eat)

Conjugation patterns:

-ARE Examples: mangiare (to eat), cucinare (to cook), pranzare (to eat lunch), cenare (to eat dinner), incontrare (to meet), passare (to pass), studiare (to study), comprare (to buy), dimostrare (to demonstrate)


io -o

tu -i

lui/lei -a

noi -iamo

voi -ate

loro -ano


Mangiare-to eat

Io mangiO (I eat)

tu mangI (you eat)

lui/lei mangiA (he/she eats)

noi mangIAMO (we eat)

voi mangiATE (you all eat)

loro mangiANO (they eat)

note: in the case of mangiare, since the infinitive has an "i" at the end of the stem, for the "tu" and the "noi" forms replace that "i" with the conjugated one. (In other words, you only have 1 "i".) This applies to all verbs with the infinitive stem ending with "i"

-ERE Expamles: scrivere (to write), leggere (to read), cadere (to fall), aggiungere (to add), crescere (to grow), vivere (to live)


io -o

tu -i

lui/lei -e

noi -iamo

voi -ete

loro -ono


Scrivere-to write

io scrivO (I write)

tu scrivI (you write)

lui/lei scrivE (he/she writes)

noi scrivIAMO (we write)

voi scrivETE (you all write)

loro scrivONO (they write)

-IRE Examples: scoprire (to discover), dormire (to sleep), morire (to die)


io -o

tu -i

lui/lei -e

noi -iamo

voi -ite

loro -ono

Example Scoprire-to discover

io scoprO (I discover)

tu scoprI (you discover)

lui/lei scoprE (he/she discovers)

noi scopriamo (we discover)

voi scoprite (you all discover)

loro scoprono (they discover)

The fourth conjugation, which is often seen as a derivative of the third one because the infinitives have the same endings (-ire), you add the suffix -isc at the stem for the io, tu, lui/lei, and loro forms. (before the other original suffix.) The noi and voi forms are the same as regular -ire verb conjugations.

-IRE with -ISC Examples: capire (to know), preferire (to prefer), gioire (to rejoice)


io -isco

tu -isci

lui/lei -isce

noi -iamo

voi -ite

loro -iscono


Capire-to know

io capISCO (I know)

tu capISCI (you know)

lui/lei capISCE (he/she knows)

noi capIAMO (we know)

voi capITE (you all know)

loro capISCONO (they know)

Irregulars-these verbs follow no particular rule, you just have to memorize them. Below are the two most basic and commonly used irregular verbs, to be and to have.

ESSERE-to be

Io sono (I am)

tu sei (you are)

lui/lei รจ (he/she is)

noi siamo (we are)

voi siete (you all are)

loro sono (they are)

AVERE-to have

Io ho (I have)

tu hai (you have)

lui/lei ha (he/she has)

noi abbiamo (we have)

voi avete (you all have)

loro hanno (they have)

Conclusion/general rule of thumb: the io, tu, and noi forms of regular verbs are conjugated the same, while the lui/lei, voi, and loro have slight differences based on the first letter of the infinitive stem.

Hope this helps :)

April 12, 2015


I agree - a few simple verb tables would really improve Duolingo.

April 14, 2015

Helps a great deal . Grazie

October 12, 2016

Grazie! Duolingo would be so much better as a language learning tool if it would include grammar lessons like verb tables. Seeing a verb table makes things much easier for me since that's what I'm familiar with from Spanish classes in High School and College.

February 24, 2018

One thing you should mention is that, if an -are verb has g, gi, c or ci at the end of the infinitive stem, it keeps that pronunciation (tu mangi vs tu giochi), whereas the -ere and -ire verbs change the pronunciation.

April 12, 2015

Brilliant mate! I actually asked the other day, for a break downs of the rules. I didn't get the answer I wanted :(. But this was the reply I was wanting :).

I'm totally in the same boat as you, I prefer to memorize my grammar.

April 13, 2015

glad I could help :)

April 13, 2015

Ciao PandaPandaInnit, I believed I answered your question, but I certainly admit that not with so much details as this discussion offers. Anyhow, good luck with conjugations! I agree that getting the grammar under your skin is important... although I found out that Italians will not give you hard time if you just mess up the verb conjugation :-)

April 14, 2015

This is JUST what I wanted - it clarifies the whole Duolingo course. Thank you.

August 19, 2016

I created a spreadsheet with the pronouns going across and the verbs underneath which easily shows the pattern they follow. I dont think my example will copy over very well but the idea is there

<pre> I You (s) He/She/YOU We You (pl) They Io Tu Lui/lei/ LEI Noi Voi Loro </pre>

To arrive
Arrivare arrivo arrivi arriva arriviamo arrivate arrivano

May 12, 2017

Awesome! Can you post the link?

May 12, 2017

You can download some great grammar books from!! Great explanations of rules and exceptions await you, ahahah

April 14, 2015

Items like yours have been posted in the past but, after a couple of weeks, they disappear so far down the list of topics that they get lost.

Don't worry about it-- post away (just as you have done). It will undoubtably help out some new user who has the same questions or problems as you did.

April 14, 2015


April 14, 2016

This is incredibly helpful! Grazie mille!

November 10, 2016

Thank you , thank you.

December 21, 2016

Thank you SO much this has clarified everything

December 22, 2016


January 2, 2017

Thank you so much, just started learning with my husband and this is exactly what we've been trying to figure out. This is incredibly helpful.

February 8, 2017

Thank you so much, this is exactly where I have had problems in learning the language.

February 24, 2017

great info! Grazie

March 11, 2017

thank you so much little boi

March 12, 2017

thanks kitty, that is the clearest explanation I have read and it really clears up a lot of muddle in y mind, Eve

March 22, 2017

This is incredibly helpful!!!

April 28, 2017

Thank you thank you thank you

May 14, 2017

Thanks so much! I love Duolingo, but having the grammar rules laid out like this helps me remember the patters better.

May 24, 2017

Angel! This is perfect!

June 8, 2017

[deactivated user]

    This is exactly the kind of thing that helps me; this was perfect!

    June 17, 2017

    Thank you. It is exactly what I wanted. I have been looking for this type of thing for a while now. Thanks.

    June 20, 2017

    awesome! just what I was looking for!

    June 27, 2017

    I've been missing my old Latin text books and trying to take notes but this is very helpful. Thank you!

    July 3, 2017

    This is just what I was looking for!

    July 8, 2017

    thank you. really need this.

    July 9, 2017

    this saved me haha wish duolingo would explain rules first!

    July 13, 2017

    Wow. Great to have it all in one place like that. Spectacular! Thanks a ton!

    August 1, 2017

    Thanks for this! What a shame it's not included in the course.

    August 13, 2017

    When using a verb in a sentence, do we also need to omit the pronoun just the Spanish. In Spanish, I know they when you say "I am" in English, it would be translated as "Estoy" or "Soy" omitting the pronoun "Yo". Does this rule also apply with Italian? Thanks!

    September 5, 2017

    Yes, it does.

    October 5, 2017

    Good one

    October 19, 2017

    I wish I would have seen this two months ago. I would have memorized them before I started, or at the least have some kind of knowledge
    of how they work. Thank you I was getting frustrated almost ready to quit.

    November 7, 2017


    November 15, 2017

    this helped me SOO much

    November 15, 2017

    Well, thank you so much for posting this. This is exactly what i need right now.

    November 29, 2017

    It helps

    December 17, 2017

    It helps

    December 17, 2017

    Grazie! This is exactly what duolingo needs, thank you so much

    December 22, 2017

    Caused me a great deal of frustration yesterday and I gave up. I don't usually give up, so that is saying a lot. I knew there was a pattern. The current 'Basics' made me go round and around without highlighting what I should look out for to help me remember the conjugations. Perhaps using a different colour to show root and the right form of verb with pronouns will aid memory.

    January 4, 2018

    Thank you!

    January 7, 2018

    Thanks so much for this! It's just what I was looking for!

    February 7, 2018

    You are not aloneby for feeling to give up, but I do not always find a valid suggestion to make when making a remark. Any constructive suggestion is positive, like giving people time enough to repair a typing error. One loses a, enormous amount of time by having to correct one's iown typing error and each tilme being obliged to lose a full days work.

    February 7, 2018

    Super confused I thought capire means to understand not to know. Huge difference there. This is very confusing for new linguists.

    March 23, 2018

    Thank you for this! :)

    June 29, 2018

    thank you. s%#t gets real confusing at times.

    September 29, 2018

    thank you for this, it helped me a lot for the future!

    January 2, 2019

    thankyou so much, really really helpful!!! xxx

    January 21, 2019

    i just wrote all of these out (since i learn best writing). thank you!

    June 26, 2019
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