In answer to the first question, "vil" never means "would" and doesn't usually mean "will". As Gustavo says, "would" is "ville".
My impression is that "vil" is rarely used for the future - "skal" is the most common, so I'd translate "vil" as "want" in the vast majority of sentences. It's what is called, in language learning, a "false friend" - it's so similar to the English word "will" that you are tempted to interpret it as such, when it actually means something else.
(Though English still retains some of the original meaning of "want" in some sentences, and, in particular, in the noun, as in "against my will" and "will and testament".)