Japanese Lesson 25: Te form.
Okay so today we're going to finish up this section with Te form verbs. Also known as "command form" verbs.
As is implied, you want to use these verbs when issuing a command of some sort.<h1>Te form</h1>
RU verbs (iru/eru verbs)
So to conjugate our RU ending verbs into command form you want to first remove the "ru" and then replace it with "te"
Taberu → Tabe → Tabete ＝ Eat!
たべる → たべ → たべて
食べる → 食べ → 食べて
Miru → Mi → Mite ＝ See!
みる → み → みて
見る → 見 → 見て
For verbs ending in "su" change "su" to "shi" and add "te"
Hanasu → Hanashi → Hanashite ＝ Speak!
はなす → はなし → はなして
話す → 話し → 話して。
Be careful! Hanashi 「話」 is actually a NOUN (which is why the "shi" doesn't stick out) it means: speech, talk, discussion, conversation.
BU, MU, NU verbs
For these three, you want to remove "bu", "mu", and "nu" and replace them with "nde"
Asobu → Aso → Asonde ＝ Play!
あすぶ → あそ → あそんで
遊ぶ → 遊 → 遊んで
Nomu → No → Nonde ＝ Drink!
のむ → の → のんで
飲む → 飲 → 飲んで
Shinu → Shi → Shinde ＝ Die!
しぬ → し → しんで
死ぬ → 死 → 死んで
For "Ku" verbs you remove "ku" and replace it with "ite"
Kiku → Ki → Kiite ＝ Listen!
きく → き → きいて
聞く → 聞 → 聞いて
For "GU" verbs. Remove "Gu" and replace with "ide"
Oyogu → Oyo → Oyoide ＝ Swim!
およぐ → およ → およいで
泳ぐ → 泳 → 泳いで
TSU, Hiragana U, and ARU verbs
Remove "tsu" and replace with "tte"
Motsu → Mo → Motte ＝ Have! （This is kind of strange)
もつ → も → もって
持つ → 持 →持って
For Hiragana U verbs remove 「う」 and replace with "tte"
Au → A → Atte ＝ Meet!
あう → あ → あって
会う → 会 → 会って
... -coughs- "aru" verbs don't follow our regular "ru" verb rules... even though we call them "ru" verbs...
Remove "ru" and replace with "tte"
Wakaru → Waka → Wakatte ＝ Understand!
わかる → わか → わかって
分かる → 分か → 分かって
So that's the basics. I haven't really touched on irregular verbs at all so far. o_o there's probably a reason for that... so play around with these for a while for now. ^_^
So the reason why I bring this up now is because this lesson bubble has some command form sentences. So we might as well learn this.
NOTE: this form is a little harsh... a softer command form would be "-nasai" which I'm not going to talk about today either.
ANOTHER NOTE: You now, for all intents and purposes, can also conjugate to Informal Past Tense! Congratulations! Just replace "-te" 「て」 "-de" 「で」 with "ta" 「た」 "da" 「だ」
and, -snickers-, TADA! :D Informal past tense!
Okay sentence time now:<h1>Sentences</h1>
... that last one comes off as a little weird... but Japanese actually DOES have a word for "say" ... so.... yeah.
I'm sure you all are feeling a little... "Eh?!" about these one word sentences. So I guess this is where I tell you that as long as the context is clear a full Japanese sentence CAN be as short as one word.
... so long as that word is a verb. XD
That's right, folks! Pretty much the only REAL non negotiable part of a Japanese sentence is the verb. You can omit most other things, so long as the context is clear. So that's kind of neat.
Here's some longer sentences though.
Drink the milk!
gyuunyuu o nonde!
ぎゅうにゅう を のんで！ 牛乳を飲んで！
Eat the food!
Tabemono o tabete!
たべもの を たべて！
Read the book!
Hon o yonde!
ほん を よんで！
If you want to command someone or something to do something... then much like English you'd say their name... or in this case the pronoun (it gets to sounding a little weird though) and then the command.
In these cases you do NOT want to use "wa" after the name/pronoun of the thing!!!
Because in this case you're pretty much just trying to get the attention of the person/animal you're about to issue a command to. And not actually talking about them in the sentence at all.
Think of it sort of like the difference between:
"you eat the food"
"You, eat the food!"
In the first one, "you eat the food" we're TALKING ABOUT "you" eating the food.
Where as in the second one, "You, eat the food!" we're GETTING THE ATTENTION of "you" and telling "you" to eat the food.
See the difference?
So when you're talking about a person/thing, you use "wa" and when trying to get that person/thing's attention you don't.
You、 eat the bread!
Anata、 pan o tabete!
あなた、 パン を たべて！
Cat, drink the water!
Neko, mizu o nonde!
ねこ、みず を のんで！
Girl, read the book!
Onnanoko, hon o yonde!
おんなのこ、ほん を よんで！
Man, speak English!
Otoko、eigo o hanashite!
おとこ、えいご を はなして！
Think you got it? :)
If not feel free to ask questions!!
That's it for now, I think. That was quite long. Oh! And credit again for Matsu-kaze.net I love their verb tables! They help me keep track of conjugations.
^^; I uh... sort of run on intuition myself... I don't remember the rules so much as go "that sound right" or "That sounds wrong... let's try conjugating this way... ... yeah that sounds more right" ... XD
Drink the milk!
gyuunyuu o yonde!
ぎゅうにゅう を よんで！
I haven't come across that word 呼んで for drink before. And, taking a risk, did you not mean
Drink the milk!
gyuunyuu o nonde!
ぎゅうにゅう を のんで！
(I can't believe someone downvotes your posts :/ My +1 took it back to 0.)
I don't know if I would characterize the ～て form as harsh, although it's certainly informal. I've never heard it referred to as the command form, I think, but rather the suggestion form, although it's kind of between the two. I really like that you brought up ～なさい though, I thought about it in the beginning. I guess, following the command form format, it could be called a request form XD
Probably way to early for this, but I want to mention that, as is often the case in Japanese, the different intensities/levels of formalities between different forms are, if I may be so crass, bloody complicated (I really wanted to use another word, but let's keep this PG-13 XD).
To the best of my knowledge, the order is something like, for the verb 食べる, 食べろ-食べて-食べてください-食べなさい-食べてくださいませ-食べなさいませ, and a few others that I'm unsure of, in increasing sense of formality ^^ I'm not sure that that order is totally correct, but something like that XD Kim Tae's grammar guide gives a good treatment, if anyone is interested ^^