Even though 'For-' and 'Efter-' directly translate to 'before' and 'after,' I like to think of them as 'early-year' and 'later-year' as an additional step before translating that into spring and autumn/fall; I find it's useful to remember their meanings
It does seem a bit cumbersome to an English speaker - I believe it literally means 'I can suffer it well', which makes it seem even stranger. Men jeg kan godt lide på det. Jeg tænker at du kan også sige 'synes om' i stedet for 'godt lide på' :)
'The' is needed in Danish and in American English (though I think it may be optional in American English, at least sometimes), but not in British English, so you can lose it in the translation if you say 'Autumn' and not 'Fall'.