"The cat is going out of the house."
Translation:Kedi evin dışına çıkıyor.
I had trouble with this one, too, but for different reasons. Previously, I had assumed prepositions did not decline (or should I say inflect?), but clearly they do. I still do not have a good grasp of when to use dışında, dışına, or dışarıya, but I did come across a site that laid out some of the forms for this word, which I've pasted below:
kapının dışı - the outside of the gate (possessive?)
bankanın dışına - to the outside of the bank (genitive?)
evin dışında - at the outside of the house (locative?)
bahçenin dışından - from the outside the garden (ablative?)
dışardan - from outside - is used without a preceding noun, because it is a adverb of place.
dışarı gidiyorum. - I´m going out. (dışarıya - also could be used) (nominative?)
dışarıdan geliyorum. - I´m coming from outside. (ablative?)
dışarıdayım - I am outside. (locative + possessive?)
Does anyone know of an even better resource? A chart showing case by point of view would be especially helpful. For example:
I am going out. ~ Dışarıya gidiyorum. You are going out. ~ _ gidiyorsun. He/She/It is going out ~ _ gidiyor. They are going out. ~ __ gidiyorlar. You (pl.) are going out. ~ _ gidiyorsunuz. We are going out. ~ _ gidiyoruz.
Or do we use "dışarıya" regardless of the point of view? Is this use of dışarıya an example of its use in the ablative case? Are prepositional cases categorized by case and declined accordingly?
In English, prepositional phrases can function as adjectives, adverbs, or nominals. For example:
Students like the owl with green feathers. (Adjective because with green feathers describes the owl. What kind of owl is it? An owl with green feathers.)
The owl flies between the trees. (Adverb because between the trees describes HOW or WHERE the owl flies. Where does the owl fly? It flies between the trees.)
The owl is next to the turkey. (Nominal because it links the description of the owl with a form of the word "to be."
Because English prepositions do not decline, a student never really needs to know its function in the sentence, but since prepositions do decline in Turkish, students need to know what ending a preposition takes and why, which is a bit of a mystery to me right now.
If anyone has any good resources or advice to share on this, please share it with us.
I don't see "dış" / "iç" / "ara" / "kenar" / "üst" / "alt" etc. as prepositions. They're nouns.
Dış = the exterior
İç = the interior
Ara = the middle part
Kenar = the side
Üst = the upper part
Alt = the lower part
When you say: "I went out of the house", in Turkish it goes: "I went to the exterior of the house".
"The exterior of the house" is no different a structure than "the food of the dog"; just use the genitive: Ev-in dış-ı. Obviously you need the dative for this sentence, so: Ev-in dış-ı-n-a. The same thing for all the other words above.
Four words are maybe more difficult:
yukarı - up/upward/upstairs
aşağı - down/downward/downstairs
dışarı - out/outward/outside
içeri - in/inward/inside
You were correct in guessing that they're used regardless of the point of view. They're not used with a noun like the other words of direction. They all function the same way, so let's work on one of them. Let's see how "dışarı" works:
Noun form: Dışarısı
Ex: Dışarısı çok soğuk; sıkı giyin. (The outside is very cold; dress warm.)
Accusative: Dışarıyı = Dışarısını
Ex: Dışarısını/Dışarıyı göster. (Show the outside)
Dative: Dışarı = Dışarıya
Ex: Dışarı(ya) çık. (Go out.)
Ex: Dışarıdan soğuk hava geliyor. (Cold air is coming from the outside).
I'm sure I've asked you this before but I just wanted to be sure. Is the buffer -n- added between the genitive ending and any other case ending?
Excuse me, but I did not get exactly why you use the possessive case "Dışarısı"?
You actually say that the cat is going to a place called "the house's outside", don't you? I wonder if this includes that it is coming from the inside of the house. Does this sentence really suggest the cat is going from the inside to the outside?
Is there anyone who could explain the difference between "dışına" and "dışarıya"? Both are dative, both are used for "outside", right?
I would like to know this as well: Is there a difference between dış and dışarı?
Why is it 'evin dışarısına,' not 'evin dışarısıya'? Am I right that the non-dative form is 'evin dışarısı' and that 'y' is usually the buffer for the dative suffix?
"evin dışarısı" is a possessive construction, after the possessive (-sı), the buffer letter -n- will follow, not -y-
I still do not understand why you say "dışarısına" in this answer. Can someone please explain???