"The cat is going out of the house."
Translation:Kedi evin dışına çıkıyor.
I had trouble with this one, too, but for different reasons. Previously, I had assumed prepositions did not decline (or should I say inflect?), but clearly they do. I still do not have a good grasp of when to use dışında, dışına, or dışarıya, but I did come across a site that laid out some of the forms for this word, which I've pasted below:
kapının dışı - the outside of the gate (possessive?)
bankanın dışına - to the outside of the bank (genitive?)
evin dışında - at the outside of the house (locative?)
bahçenin dışından - from the outside the garden (ablative?)
dışardan - from outside - is used without a preceding noun, because it is a adverb of place.
dışarı gidiyorum. - I´m going out. (dışarıya - also could be used) (nominative?)
dışarıdan geliyorum. - I´m coming from outside. (ablative?)
dışarıdayım - I am outside. (locative + possessive?)
Does anyone know of an even better resource? A chart showing case by point of view would be especially helpful. For example:
I am going out. ~ Dışarıya gidiyorum. You are going out. ~ _ gidiyorsun. He/She/It is going out ~ _ gidiyor. They are going out. ~ __ gidiyorlar. You (pl.) are going out. ~ _ gidiyorsunuz. We are going out. ~ _ gidiyoruz.
Or do we use "dışarıya" regardless of the point of view? Is this use of dışarıya an example of its use in the ablative case? Are prepositional cases categorized by case and declined accordingly?
In English, prepositional phrases can function as adjectives, adverbs, or nominals. For example:
Students like the owl with green feathers. (Adjective because with green feathers describes the owl. What kind of owl is it? An owl with green feathers.)
The owl flies between the trees. (Adverb because between the trees describes HOW or WHERE the owl flies. Where does the owl fly? It flies between the trees.)
The owl is next to the turkey. (Nominal because it links the description of the owl with a form of the word "to be."
Because English prepositions do not decline, a student never really needs to know its function in the sentence, but since prepositions do decline in Turkish, students need to know what ending a preposition takes and why, which is a bit of a mystery to me right now.
If anyone has any good resources or advice to share on this, please share it with us.
I don't see "dış" / "iç" / "ara" / "kenar" / "üst" / "alt" etc. as prepositions. They're nouns.
Dış = the exterior
İç = the interior
Ara = the middle part
Kenar = the side
Üst = the upper part
Alt = the lower part
When you say: "I went out of the house", in Turkish it goes: "I went to the exterior of the house".
"The exterior of the house" is no different a structure than "the food of the dog"; just use the genitive: Ev-in dış-ı. Obviously you need the dative for this sentence, so: Ev-in dış-ı-n-a. The same thing for all the other words above.
Four words are maybe more difficult:
yukarı - up/upward/upstairs
aşağı - down/downward/downstairs
dışarı - out/outward/outside
içeri - in/inward/inside
You were correct in guessing that they're used regardless of the point of view. They're not used with a noun like the other words of direction. They all function the same way, so let's work on one of them. Let's see how "dışarı" works:
Noun form: Dışarısı
Ex: Dışarısı çok soğuk; sıkı giyin. (The outside is very cold; dress warm.)
Accusative: Dışarıyı = Dışarısını
Ex: Dışarısını/Dışarıyı göster. (Show the outside)
Dative: Dışarı = Dışarıya
Ex: Dışarı(ya) çık. (Go out.)
Ex: Dışarıdan soğuk hava geliyor. (Cold air is coming from the outside).
You have the power to delete your comments :-) Where you would normally hit "Reply" or "Give Lingot" you should have a "Delete" option (and "Edit" if you just want to fix it). If you delete your top one, all the replies (your second post and my comment here) will also disappear with it, like it never even happened :-)
I know it was a mistake... but thanks for the laugh! :-D
I also see "diş" etc. as nouns rather than prepositions. However, I wondered if you would need one of those in this sentence at all, since I thought "çikiyor" already implied the outward directed motion so with an ablative applied on "ev" this would convey the meaning "out of/away from the house" already. You wrote the Turkish way to "go outside" is rather "go to the outside of". Would something like "kedi evden çikiyor" then not work as "go out of" at all, would it mean something different or just be an unusual phrasing?
"Kedi evden çıkıyor" = ("The cat leaves/goes outside the house"). The phrasing is fine and essentially conveys the same meaning as "The cat is going out of the house". The only difference is that one is stated in present tense as a single action and the other is stated in a way that could convey that this is a repeated action.
"goes outside the house" = "evden çikiyor" (repeated action) Eg. "Her akşam kedi evden çikiyor". ("The cat leaves the house every evening". ...stated as something that happens routinely... vs. "is going out of the house" = "Evin dışına çıkıyor" (present, single action).
Thank you very much for the prompt reply! I am a little confused on your pointing out the continuous present against simple present, however - both the suggested solution by DL, as well as my phrasing have the continuous present tense, don't they? Anyway the point I wanted to clarify, was on the idea of "going outside of X" versus "going to the outside of X" respectively.
The postpositions deck on Memrise's Duolingo Turkish has these specifications!
dış = external; outer / the outside of sth dışarı = outside; exterior; outdoors; out (both place and direction)
it also explains iç = inner; internal / the inside of sth içeri= interior; inside; indoors (both place and direction)