First time I've seen a bl-tiret (or hyphen).
I recommend a tool-tip here, even g translate was thrown off.
Yes LedisseAur. There is one more way to ask a question not highlighted above. In English one may make a statement: "You eat an egg" Staying in English, One may turn that statement into a question verbally by raising the pitch of one's voice right at the end of the sentence or in written form by simply adding a question mark at the end of the sentence like: "You eat an egg?" The same can be done in French. Tu manges un oeuf=statement. Tu manges un oeuf?=question="Manges-tu un oeuf?" Yes, there is your hyphen.
Thanks for your help about the use of est-ce que. Duo doesn't let me respond to your other comment. Our French teacher never mentioned the possibility of asking questions without est-ce que, despite that being much closer to the way we ask questions in German (my native lang)
No it is not. There are bizarre ways with French and "Est-ce-que is, I think Formal, or subject to grammar. A statement can be turned to an informal question by switching around the verb and noun.... Like: Vous voulez (You Want To) and Voulez-Vous (Do You Want TO?). We need sitesurf, northernguy Wunel or Jirkal here to give the technics. They are very good at these things. You may access their streams by entering their name in the top R/H corner of your screen (I do believe that that is called a "Desktop" nowadays) and click on search. Then go to Stream. (This has never worked for me.... but apparently its good for those with golden fingers and a telephone landline connection.)
The lesser aide arrives, summoned by email notification... : ) Yes-no questions do not need to be asked with est-ce que, per se, you can just as easily reverse the verb/subject order as in this example.
As Jackjon correctly notes, est-ce que is a formal way to phrase the question and the verb/subject inversion is a less formal way to do it. Personally, at my level I find it easier mentally to just throw est-ce que in front of a statement than to worry about inverting the verb/subject correctly in fluid speech.
As Jackjon also pointed out there is a grammatical difference. Note that est-ce que functions like "do" in English questions. So your 2 question constructions here are:
- est-ce que vous avez le journal
- avez-vous le journal
In order to form a question of the same subject and verb that we would normally use to express "you have," we need to reverse the phrasing from "you have" (declarative statement) to "have you?" (now a question). The result is "avez-vous," "avons-nous," etc. We actually use this form in English too. We say, "I have the book," to express the statement and, "Do (verb first) I have the book?" when we need to form a question. We also use our contractions to create this reverse order when we need to ask a question. "Aren't (verb first) you reading it?" or "Wouldn't she have the book?" are just two examples of how we do the same thing in English. It's funny how much we don't notice about our own language that's just as complicated as many other languages.
There's 3 ways to ask questions in French. The formal and correct one= with the "tiret", the very unformal one=without "tiret" only with the question mark "?" at the end of the sentence. And the 3rd, only a bit formal, with the addition of "est-ce que". Ex: Est-ce que vous avez le journal?
Vous avez= you have, can be used in a question, but it's not the correct form for a question, you have to make an inversion between the verb and the subject, as in English. Avez-vous= Do you have, you put the "tiret" because of this inversion. It's the correct form for a question.