"Mavi kitap kırmızı kitabın üzerinde."
Translation:The blue book is on the red book.
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üzeri is something like "its top". (I'm not sure what the base, non-possessed version of this would be.)
Remember that many locations that we would signal with prepositions use special words in Turkish -- instead of saying "in front of the book, behind the book, on top of the book, between the books", they use a generic locative plus a special noun meaning something like "place-in-front, place-behind, place-on-top, place-between" to give something like "at the books's place-in-front, at the books place-behind, at the books place-on-top, at the books' place-between".
So here we have kırmızı kitabın üzeri = the red book's place-on-top.
Plus the locative -de and a buffer consonant -n- (for adding a case suffic to a possessed form) and you get kırmızı kitabın üzerinde = at the red book's place-on-top = on top of the red book.
And what is on top of the red book? The mavi kitap.
So Mavi kitap kırmızı kitabın üzerinde "The blue book [is] on top of the red book".
I looked for "üzer" in Google Translate, Wiktionary, and some other online resources, and I can't find it. It's tricky, because the intro of this skill also mentions that "üzeri" is the location noun. The buffer-n for the locative case suffix indicates that üzeri indeed has a suffix already, but it seems like an undocumented exception.
Dative (-E) is for where something is going to, not where something is.
For example, you might be able to say Ördek nereye uçuyor? - Ördek kırmızı kitabın üzerine uçuyor. "Where is the duck flying to? - The duck is flying onto the book."
Or Mavi kitabı nereye koyuyorsun? - Mavi kitabı kırmızı kitabın üzerine koyuyorum. "Where are you putting the blue book? - I am putting the blue book onto the red book."
But not for asking where the book is resting without moving -- that is what the -DE case is for.