In my city they are much more frequent than buses, so as our trams only run along the coast I use one when I am too lazy to walk up the hill. Just ask "Dolmuş nerede?" If you get a crazy driver the front seat without a seatbelt can be a little scary though. And I wish they would accept the standard city transport smartcards, as the drivers usually take your money and give change whilst driving. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolmu%C5%9F
One day I hope to go to Iran. But the traffic would scare me I think. Re Turkish regulations I notice the dolmuş drivers put their seat belts across their chests only when they go past the inspectors. There ought to be some way of making the dolmuş safer for passengers and pedestrians but at the same time keeping them frequent and convenient.
Another accepted translation ought to be "jitney," "jitney bus," or "jitney taxi," a term that is much more descriptive than "shared" in describing this small entrepreneur-version of mass transit. They exist in Egypt as well as Turkey and Iran; they are great for going to the villages from the larger cities, and getting back as well!