In my city they are much more frequent than buses, so as our trams only run along the coast I use one when I am too lazy to walk up the hill. Just ask "Dolmuş nerede?" If you get a crazy driver the front seat without a seatbelt can be a little scary though. And I wish they would accept the standard city transport smartcards, as the drivers usually take your money and give change whilst driving. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolmu%C5%9F
One day I hope to go to Iran. But the traffic would scare me I think. Re Turkish regulations I notice the dolmuş drivers put their seat belts across their chests only when they go past the inspectors. There ought to be some way of making the dolmuş safer for passengers and pedestrians but at the same time keeping them frequent and convenient.
Let me clarify the concept of dolmush. These are mini-shuttle buses owned by small entrepreneurs. They have their own fixed routes and timetables. As a rule, dolmushes operate on those routes where it is not profitable for large passenger carriers or it is technically impossible to maintain regular traffic. Dolmys's routes are relatively short and frequent. Typical applications are intra-city traffic, connecting large cities and small towns in rugged and rural areas. Dolmushi as a business is also very common in Eastern Europe. A more accurate name would be "route taxi". Although the word "taxi" should not be misleading, you do not call dolmush to your location and do not give directions where to go. It's just a faster, more frequent and smaller scheduled bus.
I suppose the very misleading name 'shared taxi' comes from the Russian 'маршрутное такси' /marshrutnoye taksi/. It was a fixed route service operated by rather small RAF mini-vans
the word 'taksi' just meant that the passenger could get off anywhere on the route, not only at predefined stops. Now such service exists in many post-soviet countries under the short name of marshrutka, without any reference to "taxi", because it has nothing in common with normal cabs. And, of course, they use bigger mini-buses
So, the present-day marshrutka in post-soviet countries is the exact equivalent to the Turkish dolmuş, however, it has no adequate translation to English. Also the word 'taxi' is absolutely irrelevant here, I'd rather use 'minibus'.
Another accepted translation ought to be "jitney," "jitney bus," or "jitney taxi," a term that is much more descriptive than "shared" in describing this small entrepreneur-version of mass transit. They exist in Egypt as well as Turkey and Iran; they are great for going to the villages from the larger cities, and getting back as well!