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Latin for Duolingo: Vocabulary

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For the list linking to the Latin lessons I have posted so far, please see this Directory. Thanks so much for following along and I hope you enjoy learning Latin!

First Declension Nouns
feminine unless otherwise noted; terra, terrae, terrae, terram, terrā | terrae, terrarum, terris, terras, terris

agricola, ae (m.) = farmer
amita, ae = aunt (father’s sister)
aqua, aquae = water
aranea, ae = spider
arca, ae = box, chest
autobirota, ae (motobirota, ae) = motorcycle
avia, ae = grandmother
bestia, ae = beast, wild animal
bibliotheca, ae = library
birota, ae = bicycle
bracae, arum (pl.) = trousers, breeches, pants
bracae linteae caeruleae = blue jeans
brevissimae bracae = shorts
bubula, ae = beef
caepa, ae = onion
cafea, cafeae = coffee
caliga, ae = boot (worn by soldiers)
camera, ae = room, chamber (traditionally, with an arched ceiling)
carota, ae = carrot
casa, ae = cottage, small house
cathedra, ae = chair, armchair, upholstered chair
caupona, ae = restaurant, inn, tavern (or the landlady who keeps it)
cella, ae = room, storeroom
cena, ae = dinner
cerva, ae = deer
cervisia, ae = beer
charta, ae = paper, sheet of paper
cista, ae (capsa, ae) = box (we already know arca, ae, which usually refers to a chest or large box for storage)
cithara, ae = guitar, lute, lyre
claviatura, ae (plectrologium, i) = keyboard (of a computer, etc.)
consobrina, ae = (female) cousin (on mother’s side) (strictly, mother’s sister’s child)
corona, ae = crown
culina, ae = kitchen
epistula, ae = letter, epistle
faba, ae = bean
fabrica, ae = workshop, factory
familia, ae = family
farina, ae = flour, meal
fenestra, ae = window
femina, feminae = woman
filia, ae = daughter
formica, ae = ant
furca, ae = fork
Gallia, ae = Gaul, or France depending on historical context
gemma, ae = jewel, gem
gratiae, gratiarum (pl.) = thanks
gunna, ae = skirt
herba, ae = grass, herb
hora, ae = hour, (time, season)
injuria, ae = injury, injustice, wrong
insula, ae = island, apartment building
Kalendae, Kalendarum (pl.) = the Kalends, the first day of every month
lana, ae = wool
lingua, ae = language (lingua Latina = the Latin language, Latin)
littera, ae = letter (of the alphabet)
litterae, arum = (plural) a letter or dispatch; literature
Lucia, Luciae = Lucia, Lucy
magistra, ae = teacher (female)
matertera, ae = aunt (mother’s sister)
memoria, ae = memory
mensa, ae = table
musca, ae = fly
nauta, ae (m.) = sailor
Nonae, Nonarum (pl.) = the Nones, the 7th day of March, May, July, October, and the 5th of all other months
novacula, ae = razor
nuptiae, arum = wedding, marriage, nuptials (used in plural)
olla, ae = pot, jar
oryza, ae = rice
palla, ae = shawl, cloak (usually for women, worn outdoors)
patella, ae = dish, plate
patina, ae = a dish, serving dish (usually larger than a patella)
patria, ae = fatherland, native country
Paula, Paulae = Paula
pecunia, ae = money
pila, ae = ball
pirata, ae (m.) = pirate
poeta, ae (m.) = poet
porcina, ae = pork
prima mensa = the main course of a Roman dinner
puella, puellae = girl
pugna, ae = fight, battle
raeda, ae (autocinetum, i) = car
regina, ae = queen
rosa, ae = rose
rota, ae = wheel
scalae, arum (pl.) = staircase, ladder
schola, ae = school
secunda mensa = dessert
sella, ae = chair, stool
silva, ae = forest, woods (frequently used in the plural)
simia, ae = monkey, ape
solea, ae = sandal, slipper
stola, ae = (woman’s) dress, robe
taberna, ae = shop, storefront
tabula, ae = menu (also writing tablet, list, chart, placard, etc.)
tapeta, ae = carpet, tapestry
terra, ae = land, earth
thea, theae = tea
toga, ae = toga
tunica, ae = tunic, shirt (modern)
tunica manicata = jacket, fitted coat (with long sleeves)
tunicula, ae = t-shirt
ursa, ae = bear
uva, ae = grape, bunch of grapes
vacca, ae = cow
via, ae = road, way
villa, ae = house, farmhouse, country house
violina, ae = violin

Second Declension Nouns
masculine – endings in -us or -r; amicus, amici, amico, amicum, amico | amici, amicorum, amicis, amicos, amicis

advocatus, i = lawyer, advocate
ager, agri = field
amicus, i = friend
annus, i = year
architectus, i m. (architecta, ae f.) = master-builder, architect
autumnus, i = autumn, fall
avunculus, i = uncle (mother’s brother)
avus, i = grandfather
calceus, i = shoe, half-boot
cancer, cancri = crab
capillus, i = hair (sometimes used in plural)
caseus, i = cheese
catillus, i (patella, ae) = a small dish
cattus, i = cat (not used as frequently as feles)
cervus, i = deer, stag
cibus, i = food
consobrinus, i = (male) cousin (on mother’s side) (strictly, mother’s sister’s child)
coquus, i = cook
culter, cultri = knife
cuniculus, i = rabbit
delphinus, i = dolphin
digitus, i = finger, toe
discipulus, i = student
dominus, i = lord, master, owner
elephantus, i = elephant
equus, i = horse
faber, fabri (artifex, artificis)(opifex, opificis)(operarius, i) = builder, smith, carpenter, workman, craftsman
filius, i = son
focus, i = fireplace, hearth, stove
furnus, i = oven
Gaius, Gaii (Gai in some sources) = Gaius, common Roman male first name
gladius, i = sword
hortus, i = garden
ingeniarius, i (also machinator, machinatoris) = engineer
lectus, i = bed, couch
liber, libri = book
liberi, liberorum (m. pl.) = children
locus, loci (2nd decl. m. in singular, neuter in pl.) = place
ludus, i = game, school
lupus, i = wolf
magister, magistri = teacher, master (male)
Marcus, Marci = Marcus, common Roman male first name; Mark
maritus, i = husband
medicus, i = doctor
minister, ministri (ministra, ae f.) = waiter, attendant, server
murus, i = wall
nasus, i = nose
numerus, i = number
nummus, i = coin, unit of money
nuntius, i = messenger, message, reporter, or in plural the news: nuntii latini
oculus, i = eye
patruus, i = uncle (father’s brother)
petasus, i = hat pilleus, i = cap
populus, i = nation, a people (usually singular)
porcus, i = pig
proximus, i = neighbor
puer, pueri = boy
pullus, i = chicken
Romanus, i = a Roman (m.)
sacculus, i = purse, money bag, small bag
scientificus, i (homo scientiae) = scientist, man of science
servus, i = slave, servant
signifer, signiferi = standard-bearer
sucus, i = juice
tabernarius, ii (caupona, ae)(cauponarius, ii) = shopkeeper
talus, i = ankle
taurus, i = bull
umerus, i (humerus in late Latin) = shoulder, upper arm
ursus, i = bear
vir, viri = man

neuter – endings in –um; donum, doni, dono, donum, dono | dona, donorum, donis, dona, donis
acetaria, orum (pl.) = salad, greens dressed with vinegar
aedificium, i = building
aeroplanum, i (also aeronavis, is) = airplane
atrium, i = reception hall, living room, gathering room, great room
auxilium, i = help, aid
balneum, i = bath, bathroom
balneum pensile = shower (literally “hanging bath”)
bellum, i = war
bracchium, i (brachium) = arm
calendarium, i (kalendarium, i/ fasti, orum) = calendar, account book (debts were payable on the Kalends or first day of every month; fasti refers to days when official business was conducted)
capitilavium, i = shampoo
castra, castrorum (used in plural) = camp
chocolatum, i = chocolate
cingulum, i = belt, girdle
clavichordum, i (clavile, is (n.)) = piano (or other keyboard instrument)
collum, i (cervix, cervicis, m.) = neck
computatrum, i (instrumentum computatorium) = computer
consilium, i = plan, counsel, advice
crustulum, i = cookie
cubiculum, i = bedroom, sleeping chamber
cubitum, i = elbow
debitum, i = debt
dentifricium, i = toothpaste
diarium, diarii = newspaper, journal
donum, i = gift
dulciolum, i = candy, a sweet
forum, i = forum, marketplace, public square, court
fragum, i = strawberry
frigidarium, i = refrigerator, cold room (of public baths)
frumentum, i = grain (used in the plural to mean “crops”)
garum, i = fish sauce (also known as liquamen, a popular condiment in ancient Rome)
horologium, i = clock, watch
ientaculum, i = breakfast
impluvium, i = rainwater pool (in atrium of traditional domus)
insectum, i = insect
involucrum, i = envelope, wrapping, cover
labellum, i = basin, sink
linteum, i = sheet (or any linen cloth, a sail, an awning or curtain)
linum, i = linen, flax
maenianum, i = balcony
malum, mali = apple
matrimonium, i = marriage, wedding
negotium, ii = business, occupation (literally “no leisure”)
officium, i = office, service, duty
oleum, i = oil
oppidum, i = town
ostium, i (janua, ae) = door, entrance
otium, ii = leisure, pleasure
ovum, i = egg
pallium, i = cloak, outer garment
paludamentum, i = military cloak, commonly worn by generals
periculum, i = danger
pirum, i = pear
pittacium, i = stamp, label, ticket
poculum, i = drinking cup, bowl
prandium, i = lunch (late breakfast, brunch)
pretium, i = price
proelium, i = battle
regnum, i = kingdom
responsum, i = answer
saccharum, sacchari = sugar
sagum, i = short cloak, commonly worn by soldiers
scrinium, i = desk
signum, i = sign, standard
speculum, i = mirror
solum, i = floor, foundation, soil, ground, bottom
subligaculum, i = underwear, underpants, loincloth
tablinum, i = office, study
tectum, i = roof, ceiling
telephonum, i = telephone
televisorium, i = television set
tergum, i = back
thermopolium, i = take-out restaurant, cafe, deli counter, fast food place
triclinium, i = dining room
vehiculum, i = vehicle
ventilatrum, i = fan
verbum, i = word
vestimentum, i = garment, article of clothing, clothes (in pl.)
vinum, i = wine
vivarium, i = zoo, animal habitat, game preserve

Third Declension Nouns:

m/f, declined regularly (lex, legis, legi, legem, lege| leges, legum, legibus, leges, legibus)
aestas, aestatis (f.) = summer
amanuensis, amanuensis (c.) = secretary, clerk
anas, anatis (f.) = duck
auctor, auctoris (m.) = author, inventor, creator, cause
auris, auris (f.) = ear
bellator, bellatoris (m.) = warrior
bos, bovis (c.) = ox, bull, cow
bubo, bubonis (m.) = owl
calix, calicis (m) = chalice, wine cup
canis, canis (c.) = dog
caro, carnis (f.) = meat, flesh
civitas, civitatis (f.) = state, citizenship, community, city
color, coloris (m.) = color
conjunx, conjugis (c.) = spouse, bride, consort (pl. conjuges = a married couple)
custos, custodis (m.) = guard
doctor, doctoris (m.) = teacher, learned man, scientist, one with an advanced degree
dolor, doloris (m.) = pain, sorrow
dux, ducis (m.) = general, leader
feles, felis (f.) = cat
frater, fratris (m.) = brother
gustatio, gustationis (f.) = appetizer
hebdomas, hebdomadis (f.) (sabbatum, i/sabbata, orum/septimana, ae)= week, seven days
hiems, hiemis (f.) = winter homo, hominis (m.) = man, human
imperator, imperatoris (m.) = commander-in-chief, general, emperor, ruler (outranks dux)
infans, infantis (c.) = baby, infant
judex, judicis (iudex, iudicis) (m.) = judge
Klingon, Klingonis (c.) = a Klingon
labor, laboris, (m.) = work, effort, toil
leo, leonis (m.) = lion
lepus, leporis (m.) = rabbit, hare
lex, legis (f.) = law
libertas, libertatis (f.) = liberty, freedom
lodix, lodicis (f.) = blanket, bedspread
lux, lucis (f.) = light
mater, matris (f.) = mother
mercator, mercatoris (m.) (negotiator, negotiatoris (m.)) = merchant, trader, businessman
miles, militis (m.) = soldier
mulier, mulieris (f.) = woman (femina is also used)
mus, muris (c.) = mouse, rat
nemo, neminis (c.)= no one, nobody
nepos, nepotis (m. or common in plural) = grandson, grandchild, nephew, descendant
neptis, neptis (f.) = granddaughter
nux, nucis (f.) = nut
ovis, ovis (c.) = sheep
panis, panis (m.) = bread
papilio, papilionis (m.) = butterfly, moth
parens, parentis (c.) = parent
pater, patris (m.) = father
patruelis, patruelis (c.) = cousin on father’s side (strictly, child of father’s brother)
pax, pacis (f.) = peace
pes, pedis (m.) = foot
piscator, piscatoris (m.) = fisherman
piscis, piscis (m.) = fish
pollex, pollicis (m.) = thumb (big toe)
potio, potionis (f.) = a drink, beverage
princeps, principis (m.) = chief, leading man, boss
procurator, procuratoris (m.)(praepositus, i) = manager, supervisor, boss quaestio, quaestionis (f.) = question, investigation
rex, regis (m.) = king
(inter)rogatio, rogationis (f.) = question, inquiry, bill
sal, salis (m.) = salt
sanguis, sanguinis (m.) = blood, family
sapo, saponis (m.) = soap
scriptor, scriptoris (m.) = writer, scribe
sedes, sedis (f.) = chair, seat, residence
societas, societatis (f.) = company, (business) organization
sol, solis, m = sun
soror, sororis (f.) = sister
supellex, supellectilis (f.) (used in the singular) = furniture, household furnishings
televisio, televisionis (f.) = television
testudo, testudinis (f.) = tortoise, turtle (also a defensive military formation)
tigris, tigris/ tigridis = tiger
timor, timoris (m.) = fear
tonsor, tonsoris (m.) = barber
uxor, uxoris (f.) = wife
vesper, vesperis (also vesper, vesperi) (m.) = evening
vestis, vestis (f.) = clothing, clothes, robe, garment
veritas, veritatis (f.) = truth
virtus, virtutis (f.) = courage, virtue, manliness

neuter, declined regularly (flumen, fluminis, flumini, flumen, flumine| flumina, fluminum, fluminibus, flumina, fluminibus)
caput, capitis (n.) = head
corpus, corporis (n.) = body
crus, cruris (n.) = leg (lower leg)
flumen, fluminis (n.) = river
holus, holeris (n.) = vegetable
iter, itineris (n.) = journey, route, march
jus, juris (n.) = soup, broth, gravy
lac, lactis (n.) = milk
lumen, luminis (n.) = lamp, light
nomen, nominis (n.) = name
opus, operis (n.) (munus, muneris)(negotium, i)(labor, laboris) = work, job, employment
os, oris (n.) = mouth
pectus, pectoris (n.) = chest
pecus, pecoris (n.) = cattle, herd, domesticated animal, beast
piper, piperis (n.) = pepper (black pepper)
sidus, sideris (n.) = constellation, star
tempus, temporis (n.) = time, period of time, season
ver, veris (n.) (abl. s. veri) = spring

m/f, with i-stem in gen. pl. (pars, partis, parti, partem, parte| partes, partium, partibus, partes, partibus)
apis, apis, apium (f.) = bee
avis, avis, avium (f.) = bird
civis, civis, civium (c.) = citizen
clavis, clavis, clavium (f.) = key
collis, collis, collium (m.) = hill
dens, dentis, dentium (m.) = tooth, tusk
frons, frontis, frontium (f.) = forehead, brow, front
gens, gentis, gentium (f.) = tribe, nation, clan
hostis, hostis, hostium (c.) = enemy
ignis, ignis, ignium (m.) = fire
mensis, mensis, mensium (m.) = month
mons, montis, montium (m.) = mountain
mors, mortis, mortium (f.) = death
nox, noctis, noctium (f.) = night
pars, partis, partium (f.) = part, piece
pons, pontis, pontium (m.) = bridge
serpens, serpentis, serpentium (c.) = snake
urbs, urbis, urbium (f.) = city
vigil, vigilis, vigilium (m.) (+publicus) = policeman

neuter, with i-stem in abl. s., nom., gen., and acc. pl (mare, maris, mari, mare, mari | maria, marium, maribus, maria, maribus
animal, animalis, animalium (n.) = animal
cervical, cervicalis, cervicalium (n.) (pulvinus, i) = pillow, cushion
cocleare, coclearis (n.) = spoon, spoonful, snail shell
cor, cordis (cordium, but corda nom. and acc. pl.) (n.) = heart
mantele, mantelis, mantelium (n.) = towel, hand-towel
mare, maris, marium (n.) = sea
mel, mellis (n.) = honey
ocularia (n. pl.)(vitra ocularia, pl.) = glasses (n.b. this is a 3rd declension plural neuter adjective, used as a noun)
os, ossis, ossium (n.) = bone
tibiale, tibialis, tibialium (n.) = sock

4th Declension Nouns
masculine unless otherwise noted (portus, portūs, portuī, portum portū | portūs, portuum, portibus, portūs, portibus)
adventus, us = arrival, approach, coming
domus, us (f.) = house, home
exercitus, us = army
fructus, us = fruit, produce
genu, genus (n.) = knee
gustus, us = taste
habitus, us = condition, appearance; suit of clothes
Idus, Iduum (f.)(pl.) = the Ides, the 15th day of March, May, July, October, and the 13th of all other months
impetus, us = attack
manus, us (f.) = hand, power
objectus, us (m.)(obiectus) = obstacle, object (for object, res, rei / corpus, corporis may also be used)
odoratus, us = smell, sense of smell
portus, us = harbor, port
reditus, us = return, returning, income, rent
sensus, us = sense
sinus, us = (originally, the fold of a toga used to store valuables), pocket
spiritus, us = spirit, breath
tactus, us = touch, sense of touch
vestitus, us = clothing
visus, us = sight, vision, seeing

5th Declension Nouns
feminine unless otherwise noted (res, rei, rei, rem, re | res, rerum, rebus, res, rebus)
acies, aciei = sharp edge, battle line
dies, diei (m.) = day (n.b. masculine, but when referring to a specific date it may be feminine, e.g. “tertiā die” = on the third day)
dies hebdomadis; dies Solis, dies Lunae, dies Martis, dies Mercurii, dies Iovis, dies Veneris, dies Saturnis = the days of the week; Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday
facies, faciei = face, form, shape
fides, fidei = faith, trust, loyalty
meridies, meridiei (m.) = midday, noon
res, rei = thing, matter, affair, subject
spes, spei = hope

Adjectives (1st/2nd Declension):
acidus, a, um = sour
albus, a, um = white (dead white, not shining)
altus, a, um = high, tall, deep
antiquus, a, um = ancient, old
ater, atra, atrum = black (like a coal, not glossy); dark, gloomy
aurantius, a, um = orange (not often used in classical Latin)
aureus, a, um = golden, gold
benignus, a, um = kind
bonus, a, um = good
caeruleus, a, um = blue
calidus, a, um = hot, warm
candidus, a, um = white (shining, dazzling)
canus, a, um = gray, gray-haired
chartaceus, a, um = made of paper
dexter, dextera, dexterum (dexter, dextra, dextrum) = right, on the right
flavus, a, um = yellow, blond/e-haired
frigidus, a, um = cold, cool
fuscus, a, um = brown
honestus, a, um = respectable, upright, honest
laneus, a, um = woolen, made of wool
liber, libera, liberum = free
linteus, a, um = made of linen
longus, a, um = long
luteus, a, um = yellow
magnus, a, um = large, great
malus, a, um = bad
manicatus, a, um = with long sleeves, long-sleeved
medius, a, um = middle, midst
meus, a, um = my, mine
miser, misera, miserum = wretched, poor
multus, a, um = much, many
negotiosus, a, um = busy, full of business
niger, ❤❤❤❤❤, nigrum = black (glossy); dark
noster, nostra, nostrum = our, ours
novus, a, um = new
parvus, a, um = small
praeteritus, a, um = past, bygone, last
proximus, a, um (adj.) = nearest, next, most recent, latest
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum = beautiful, handsome
purpureus, a, um = purple
quantus, a, um = how great, how large, how much, how many (quanti is usually used with consto)
rectus, a, um = honest, right, proper, straight
Romanus, a, um = Roman
roseus, a, um = pink, rose
ruber, rubra, rubrum = red
rufus, a, um = ruddy, red-haired
salsus, a, um = salty, salted
scorteus, a, um = made of leather
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum = left, on the left
suus, a, um = his (own), her/hers, its, their/theirs (reflexive possessive adjective)
tuus, a, um = your, yours (of one person)
unus, a, um = one (in s. only; gen. unius, dat. uni)
vegetarianus, a, um = vegetarian
verus, a, um = true, real
vester, vestra, vestrum = your, yours (of more than one person)

Adjectives (3rd declension)
brevis, e = short
difficilis, e = difficult
dulcis, e = sweet
esuriens, esurientis = hungry, starving
facilis, e = easy
felix, felicis (one form in nom. s.) = happy, lucky, fortunate
fortis, e = strong, brave
gravis, e = heavy, serious, severe
juvenis, e = young
omnis, e = every, all
senex, senis (one form in nom. s.)= old, aged; an old man or woman similis, e = like, similar (used with gen. or dat. case to complete the meaning)
sitiens, sitientis = thirsty
tristis, e = sad
viridis, e = green
uniformis, e = uniform, having one shape

Other Adjectives
qui, quae, quod (interrogative adj.)= which, what
quot, (indeclinable) = how many?

Numbers
I. unus, una, unum = one
II. duo, duae, duo = two
III. tres, tria = three
IV. quattuor = four
V. quinque = five
VI. sex = six
VII. septem = seven
VIII. octo = eight
IX. novem = nine
X. decem = ten
XI. undecim = eleven
XII. duodecim = twelve
XIII. tredecim = thirteen
XIV. quattuordecim = fourteen
XV. quindecim = fifteen
XVI. sedecim = sixteen
XVII. septendecim = seventeen
XVIII. duodeviginti = eighteen
XIX. undeviginti = nineteen
XX. viginti = twenty
C. centum = one hundred
M. mille = one thousand (n.b. in the plural milia, a neuter noun meaning “thousands”, often used with genitive)(used with passus, us = a pace; mille passus = a mile, milia passuum = thousands of paces or miles)

Pronouns (given in 1st-2nd-3rd person order):
ego, mei = I
nos, nostri/nostrum = we
tu, tui = you (s.)
vos, vestri = you (pl.)
is, ea, id = he, she, it; that
ei, eae, ea = they; those
--, sui = himself, herself, itself, themselves (used reflexively, no nominative)
quid (interrogative pronoun) = what?
quis (interrogative pronoun) = who?
hic, haec, hoc = this (these)
ille, illa, illud = that (those)

Prepositions
with accusative
ad = to, near, toward, at
ante = before, in front of
circum = around
contra = against
in = into, onto, against
inter = between, among
intra = within, inside of
per = through
post = after, behind
propter = on account of, because of
sub = under, underneath (with verbs of motion)
super = over, above, on top of (sometimes with abl.)
trans = across

with ablative
ab/ a = away from, from, by (expressing agency)
cum = with (expressing accompaniment)
de = concerning, about, from, down from
ex/e = out of, from
in = in, on
pro = on behalf of, for, before, in front of, in place of
sine = without
sub = under, beneath, underneath, below

Verbs (1st Conjugation):
Regular pattern of 4 principal parts endings: o, are, avi, atus
adjuvo (adiuvo), adjuvare, adjuvi, adjutus also juvo (iuvo), 1 = help, assist
ambulo, 1 = walk
amo, 1 = love, like, am fond of
canto, 1 = sing
ceno, 1 = dine, eat dinner
clamo, 1 = shout, cry, proclaim
cogito, 1 = think, consider
consto, constāre, constiti, constatus (1) = stand together, agree, stand firm, endure, be certain; cost (with abl. or gen.)
desidero, 1 = want, desire, long for
do, dare, dedi, datus, 1 = give
exspecto, 1 = wait, wait for
gusto, 1 = taste, enjoy
habito, 1 = live, inhabit
laboro, 1 = work, labor
laudo, 1 = praise
lavo, 1 = wash, clean
manduco, 1 = chew, eat, devour
nato, 1 = swim
navigo, 1 = sail
paro, 1 = prepare (for)
pernocto, 1 = spend the night, stay all night long
porto, 1 = carry
pugno, 1 (intr.) = fight
rogo, 1 = ask, request
seco, secare, secui, sectus, 1 = cut, divide
servo, 1 = protect, keep, preserve, watch over
specto, 1 = watch, look at
sto, stare, steti, status, 1 = stand
veto, vetare, vetui, vetitus, 1 = forbid, prevent, reject, not allow
voco, 1 = call
volo, 1 = fly
1st Conjugation Deponent Verbs
conor, conari, conatus sum, 1 = try
recordor, recordari, recordatus sum, 1 = call to mind, remember

Verbs (2nd Conjugation):
(principal parts like moneo, monēre, monui, monitus unless otherwise noted)
compleo, complēre, complevi, completus, 2 (w. abl.) = fill, fill up
debeo, 2 (w. inf.) = owe, ought, must, should
doceo, docēre, docui, doctus, 2 = teach, inform
doleo, dolēre, dolui, dolitus, 2 = feel pain, hurt, suffer
egeo, egēre, egui, 2 (w. abl. or gen.) = need, am in need of
ferveo, fervēre, ferbui, 2 (intr.) = boil
fleo, flēre, flevi, fletus, 2 = cry, weep
habeo, 2 = have
jubeo (iubeo), jubēre, jussi, jussus, 2 = order, command
licet, licēre, licuit, 2 (impersonal, w. dat. and inf.) = it is permitted, it is allowed
maneo, manēre, mansi, mansurus, 2 = remain, stay
moneo, 2 = warn, advise
moveo, movēre, movi, motus, 2 = move
oportet, oportēre, oportuit, 2 (impersonal, w. acc. + inf.) = it behooves, it is necessary, it is right, must, ought
placeo, placēre, placui, placitus, 2 (w. dat.) = please, be pleasing to
respondeo, respondēre, respondi, responsus, 2 = answer, respond
retineo, retinēre, retinui, retentus, 2 = hold back, keep, restrain
rideo, ridēre, risi, risus, 2 = laugh
sedeo, sedēre, sedi, sessus, 2 = sit
subrideo, subridēre, subrisi, subrisus, 2 = smile
teneo, tenēre, tenui, tentus, 2 = hold, keep (memoriā teneo =hold in memory, remember)
terreo, 2 = frighten, terrify
timeo, timēre, timui, 2 = fear
valeo, valēre, valui, valiturus, 2 = am strong, am well
video, vidēre, vidi, visus, 2 = see

Verbs (3rd Conjugation):
(infinitive ends in –ere; no regular pattern of principal parts)
accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus, 3 = turn on, kindle a light/lamp
ago, agere, egi, actus, 3 = do, act, drive, give
amitto, amittere, amisi, amissus, 3 = lose, send away
bibo, bibere, bibi, (bibus/bibitum), 3 = drink
cado, cadere, cecidi, casurus, 3 = fall
cano, canere, cecini, cantus, 3 = make music, play an instrument, sing (used with ablative)
capio, capere, cepi, captus, 3 (i-stem) = take, catch, capture
claudo, claudere, clausi, clausus, 3 = close, shut
cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus,3 (used in perfect tense) = learn, recognize, know colo, colere, colui, cultus, 3 = till, cultivate, grow (as a crop), tend
coquo, coquere, coxi, coctus, 3 = cook
credo, credere, credidi, creditus, 3 = believe, trust, entrust
cresco, crescere, crevi, cretum, 3 = grow, increase
curro, currere, cucurri, cursus, 3 = run, hurry
dico, dicere, dixi, dictus, 3 = say, tell
dimitto, dimittere, dimisi, dimissus, 3 = send away, dismiss, release
disco, discere, didici, discitus, 3 = learn, acquire knowledge/skill of/in
edo, edere, edi, esum, 3 = eat (some irregular and alternate forms)
emo, emere, emi, emptus, 3 = buy, gain
facio, facere, feci, factus, 3 (i-stem) = make, do
fugio, fugere, fugi, fugitus, 3 (i-stem) = flee, fly, run away
gero, gerere, gessi, gestus, 3 = have on, wear (clothing) (also, carry, carry on, wage (war))
induo, induere, indui, indutus, 3 = put on (clothing), dress in
incendo, incendere, incendi, incensus, 3 = set fire to, kindle, burn, make angry
incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptus, 3 (i-stem) = begin, undertake
jacio (iacio), jacere, jeci, jactus, 3 (i-stem) = throw, cast, hurl
lego, legere, legi, lectus, 3 = read (gather, collect)
ludo, ludere, lusi, lusus, 3 = play
mitto, mittere, misi, missus, 3 = send, send off
nosco, noscere, novi, notus, 3 (used in perfect tense) = become acquainted with, know
nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptus, 3 = marry, take as husband
peto, petere, petivi, petitus, 3 = seek, beg, order, ask for, aim for
pono, ponere, posui, positus, 3 = put, place, set, put down
quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus, 3 = ask, seek
rego, regere, rexi, rectus, 3 = direct, keep straight, rule, govern
scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptus, 3 = write
solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus, 3 = loose, release, pay (off)
(con)sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus, 3 = take, consume (e.g., a meal)
surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus, 3 = stand up, get up
tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus, 3 = touch
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus, 3 = raise up, lift, take away
vendo, vendere, vendidi, venditus, 3 = sell
vinco, vincere, vici, victus, 3 = conquer, win
vivo, vivere, vixi, victus, 3 = live
3rd Conjugation Deponent Verbs
loquor, loqui, locutus sum, 3 = speak
morior, mori, mortuus sum, 3 (i-stem) = die, pass away
nascor, nasci, natus sum, 3 = am born
obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum, 3 = forget (used with gen. of persons, gen. or acc. of things, acc. with neuter pronouns or adjectives)
patior, pati, passus sum, 3 (i-stem) = allow, suffer, permit
sequor, sequi, secutus sum, 3 = follow, come after
utor, uti, usus sum, 3 (w. abl.) = use, employ, profit from/by

Verbs (4th Conjugation):
(Principal parts like audio, audire, audivi, auditus unless otherwise noted)
aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus, 4 = open
audio, 4 = hear
convenio, convenire, conveni, conventus, 4 = assemble, come together
dormio, 4 = sleep
esurio, 4 = be hungry, hunger
invenio, invenire, inveni, inventus, 4 = find, come upon
munio, 4 = fortify, construct, strengthen
nescio, nescire, nescivi, nescitus, 4 (negative form of scio) = do not know, am ignorant pervenio, pervenire, perveni, perventus, 4 = arrive, reach
scio, 4 = know
sitio, sitire, sitivi, --, 4 = be thirsty, thirst
venio, venire, veni, ventus, 4 = come
4th Conjugation Deponent Verbs
orior, oriri, ortus sum, 4 = rise, arise, descend from

Verbs, Irregular:
abeo, abire, abii (abivi), abitum = go away, leave, depart
absum, abesse, afui, afuturus = am away, am distant
adfero/affero, adferre, attuli, allatus = bring to, deliver, carry
adsum, adesse, adfui, adfuturus = am here, am present
aufer, auferre, abstuli, ablatus = take away, remove
desum, deesse, defui, defuturus, irreg. (frequently used w. dat.) = fail, be without, be missing
eo, ire, ivi/ii, itum = go
exeo, exire, exii (exivi), exitum = go out, exit
fero, ferre, tuli, latus = bear, bring, carry
fio, fieri, factus sum = become, be made, be done, happen (this is the irregular passive voice of facio (3) = make, do)
ineo, inire, inii (inivi), initus = go in, enter, begin
malo, malle, malui (irreg.) (magis + volo) = prefer, wish/want more/instead
memini, meminisse = remember (used with gen. of persons, gen. or acc. of things, acc. with neuter pronouns or adjectives)
nolo, nolle, nolui (irreg.) = am unwilling, do not want
odi, odisse (only perfect forms used) = hate
possum, posse, potui (normally used with infinitive) = am able, can
sum, esse, fui, futurus = I am
transeo, transire, transivi/transii, transitus = go across, go over, cross, pass
volo, velle, volui = am willing, wish for, want

Adverbs:
Anglice = in English
bene = well
celeriter = quickly, swiftly, fast
cotidie = daily, every day
cras = tomorrow
cur = why
diu = for a long time
facile = easily
foris = outside, outdoors
fortiter = strongly, bravely
heri = yesterday
hic = here
hodie = today, on this day
ibi (also eo, illic, illuc) = there
inde = from there, from then
intus (intro) = inside, indoors, in the house
ita = so, thus
iterum = again, for the second time
jam/iam = already, now
Latine = in Latin
longe = far, by far
male = badly
mane = morning, in the morning
mox = soon
multum = much, very much, greatly, very, frequently, “a lot” (n.b. can also be used as a neuter noun, with the genitive)
-ne (enclitic/particle) = question mark / turns a statement into a question
nimis (nimius, nimium) = too much, excessively (often with genitive)
non = not
nonne = introduces a question expecting a “yes” answer (lit. “is it not so?”)
num = introduces a question expecting a “no” answer
numquam = never
nunc = now
parum = too little, not enough (n.b. can also be used as an indeclinable neuter noun, with the genitive)
pridie = the day before (used with acc.)
primum = at first, first of all, in the first place
quam, adv. = as, than, how
quamdiu, adv. = how long?
quando = when, at what time
quo = where to, where, whither
quomodo = how, in what way
recte = correctly, rightly; used with a verb of speaking to mean “to be right”
rursus = again, back
saepe = often, frequently, usually
satis, sat = enough, sufficiently (n.b can also be used as a neuter noun, with the genitive)
semper = always
sic = so, thus, in such a manner
tum (tunc) = then, at that time
ubi = where
ubique = everywhere
unde = from where?, whence?
ut (adv.) = how, in what way, as (we’ll encounter ut again in the future, as a conjunction meaning “in order that”, but it is also used commonly as an adverb)
valde = greatly, very
vero = in truth, truly, in fact
vespere/vesperi (adv. or abl. s.) = in the evening, at evening time

Interjections ecce = behold!, look!, here is, there is

Conjunctions:
at = but atque (ac) = and
aut = or
aut...aut = either...or
autem (postpositive) = however, but, on the other hand
cum = when, as, while, since
dum = while, as long as
enim (postpositive) = for, because, indeed, in fact
et = and
et...et = both...and
etiam = even, also
itaque (conj.) = therefore, and so
neque (nec) = and not, nor
neque...neque (nec...nec) = neither...nor
-que = and (This conjunction form is an enclitic, tacked on to the end of the second word to be joined, e.g. “pueri puellaeque” = boys and girls.)
quod = because
sed = but
si = if
tamen = yet, nevertheless
vel = or

April 29, 2015

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/btalbert

canis, canis (m) - dog

don't forget dogs

April 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Brendan06

Don't forget Annus,Anni = Year

July 25, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/carpelanam

Annus, i is in fact in with the 2nd declension masculine nouns, but a line break was missing. Should be fixed now... gratias!

July 25, 2016
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