Serbian language: nouns, part 3
Hello my friends :)
I could not write earlier a new lesson, because I was last whole week on an excursion in Budapest (Hungary) and Prague (Czech Republic) and I had a lot of obligations. I had a great time and I spent awesome! I would like to stay a few more weeks there! :) Both capitals were very nice, interesting and huge cities, but I more like Prague to which comes a large number of millions foreign tourists.
However, when I read something in Czech language, I can somewhat understand. Serbian and Czech are a bit similar in grammar, and have a lot of the same words: voda/voda (water); pivo/pivo (beer); vino/vino (wine); kafa/kava (coffee); čaj/čaj (tea); mleko/mleko (milk); sir/syr (cheese), but sok/štava, džus (juice); hleb/chleb (bread); crna, bela, crvena, zelena/ černa, bíla, červena, zelena (black, white, red, green); veliki, mali/velky, maly (big/large, small/little); doručak, večera/ snidane, večere (breakfast, dinner); apoteka, pekara/ lekarna, pekarna (pharmacy, bakery); jabuka, meso, riba, kečap, majonez, kobasica/ jablko, maso, ryba, kečup, majoneza, klobasa (apple, meat/flesh, fish, ketchup, mayonnaise, sausage) etc. I so remembered these Czech words. Therefore, Czechs can learn Serbian easier, and Serbs also Czech, but Czech language isn't easy sincerely, because of their accents, various hiphen above the letters and the big difference of spoken and written language, while Serbian doesn't have such problems. :) After all, the Czech language is beutiful, unlike Slovak, Belorusian etc.
Firstly I just want to thank you all for your support! :) My two previous lessons was interested enough for you, so I continue with new lessons, but I'll be very glad if you're still interested in this. :)
The link for first lesson: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/8022997
The link for second lesson: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/8131227
You have learned in the previous lessons demonstrative (you're not completely, I'll continue in the coming lessons) and possessive pronouns, and now learn Serbian nouns, while pronouns are in pause mode. :)
Nouns are variable types of words in Serbian language and independent type of words which denoting beings, objects / things and phenomenons. Every noun has a gender and changes in the number and case.
In Serbian language every noun can be masculine (m), feminine (f) or neuter (n) gender and most have a singular (sg) and plural (pl). Gender nouns is determined on the basis of continuing in the nominative singular:
- The masculine nouns in nominative singular don't have continuing ie. end in all consonants (mostly k, s, n, r etc. but sometimes in o and rarely in all vowels, and in nominative plural end in (ov)i; for example:
television - televizor (sg) / televisions - televizori (pl)
window - prozor (sg) / windows - prozori (pl)
bed - krevet (sg) / beds - kreveti (pl)
computer - kompjuter (sg) / computers - kompjuteri (pl)
movie - film (sg) / movies - filmovi (pl) *
apartment - stan (sg) / apartments - stanovi (pl)
juice - sok (sg) / juices - sokovi (pl)
city - grad (sg) / cities - gradovi (pl)
table - sto (sg) / tables - stolovi (pl) *
job - posao (sg) / jobs - poslovi (pl)
ash - pepeo (sg) / ashes - pepelovi (pl)
rooster - petao (sg) / roosters - petlovi (pl)
neighbor - komšija (sg) / neighbors - komšije (pl) *
boss - gazda (sg) / bosses - gazde (pl)
colleague - kolega (sg) / colleagues - kolege (pl)
judge - sudija (sg) / judges - sudije (pl)
king - kralj (sg) / kings - kraljevi (pl) *
knife - nož (sg) / knives - noževi (pl)
end - kraj (sg) / ends - krajevi (pl)
snail - puž (sg) / snails - puževi (pl)
All masculine plural nouns usually end in "i", but most nouns with one syllable and sometimes often with two syllables of words ending in "ovi", for example: "stani" or "gradi" is wrong, so "stanovi" or "gradovi" is correct.
All masculine singular nouns usually end in all consonants, but must sometimes rarely end in all vowels except "a" (there're also masculine nouns in this letter, but it's special): "o" - such as posao, sto, video, promo; "i" - taksi, žiri; "e" - bife; "u" - intervju etc, and in plural: poslovi, stolovi, videoi, promoi; taksiji, žiriji (inserted "j" because is ended with the same vowel); bifei; intervjui etc.
All masculine singular nouns usually end in "a", and in nomative plural have continuing "e", but have declination as feminine nouns.
All masculine plural nouns usually end in "ovi", but the nouns which end in "j" "lj", "nj", "đ", dž, "č", "ć", "š" and "ž", and sometimes "r", "s" and "z" are added "evi", not "ovi", so "krajevi" is correct, and "krajovi" is wrong.
*There're exemptions, such as: road - put; roads - putevi, because at the end of the word is the letter "t", which usually has continued "ovi", and day - dan; days - dani or tooth - zub; teeth - zubi, not danovi or zubovi as well as horse - konj; horses - konji, not konjevi. It's also a exemption, because the words usually with one or sometimes two syllables ending with "ovi" or "evi".
There're double plural forms:
wolf - vuk (sg) / wolves - vuci and vukovi (pl) *
spider - pauk (sg) / spiders - pauci and paukovi (pl)
sign - znak (sg) / signs - znaci and znakovi (pl)
boy - dečak (sg) / boys - dečaci (pl) *
All nouns which are ended with "k", they are converted into "c" in nomative plural, not dečaki or vuki. It's calling "sibilarizacija" (sibilarization). We'll learn it in coming lessons. Some nouns have double forms, but many Serbians usually use even I, eg. "vukovi", and "vuci" is rarely used, although both forms are correct. Some nouns don't have double forms, such as: dečak -> dečaci etc.
The feminine nouns in nominative singular have continuing "a", and in nominative plural end "e". There're nouns which don't have continuing ie. mostly end in st and sometimes some consonants, but luckily, this happens rarely, and in plural in all consonants end "i". For example:
The nouns which ending in "a":
book - knjiga (sg) / books - knjige (pl)
house - kuća (sg) / houses - kuće (pl)
picture - slika (sg) / pictures - slike (pl)
armchair - fotelja (sg) / armchairs - fotelje (pl)
The nouns which ending in "st" or some consonants:
youth - mladost (sg) / youths - mladosti (pl) *
bone - kost (sg) / bones - kosti (pl)
love - ljubav (sg) / loves - ljubavi (pl) *
thing - stvar (sg) / things - stvari (pl)
All abctract nouns as well as concrete are used singular, and very rarely is used plural.
The neuter nouns in nominative singular have continuing "o" or "e", and in nominative plural end "a", but is for example:
village - selo (sg) / villages - sela (pl)
mirror - ogledalo (sg) / mirrors - ogledala (pl)
field - polje (sg) / fields - polja (pl)
face - lice (sg) / faces - lica (pl)
man - čovek (sg) / men; people - ljudi (pl)
brother - brat (sg) / brothers - braća (pl) *
child - dete (sg) / children - deca (pl) *
Mr. (mister) - gospodin (sg) / Messrs. - gospoda (pl) *
eye - oko (sg) / eyes - oči (pl) **
ear - uvo (sg) / ears - uši (pl) **
- These plural nouns are changing completely as feminine nouns singular
** These plural nouns are changing completely as feminine nouns plural
The nouns which have only plural (pluralia tantum):
door(s) - vrata *
mouth(s) - usta *
newspaper(s) - novine **
glasses - naočare ** (the same in English)
scissors - makaze ** (the same in English)
pants - pantalone ** (the same in English)
jeans - farmerke ** (the same in English)
ladder - merdevine **
back(s) - ledja *
chest(s) - grudi **
lungs - pluća *
- All nouns are changing as neuter nouns plural
** All nouns are changing as feminine nouns plural
I'll write in coming lessons more about the nouns, the plural, the types of nouns and voice changes, such as sibilarization, palatalization etc.
It's the end of the lesson. The exercises will be and you'll see a lot of sentences in coming lessons. I hope that I'm clear :)
If you have any questions about it, write freely in a comment. And sorry if I have mistakes, English isn't my native language, but I certaily progress more and more and I want to know fluent English because it's necessary. I'll writte a new post soon if you're interested in this. :)
Many greetings from Serbia! - Mnogo pozdrava iz Srbije!
In anticipation of the Serbo-Croatian course, I am learning Russian and now Czech (the reverse courses - not so easy to go through without explanations in English and without audio, but they will have to do for now).
From what I already know, I have the impression that Slavic languages are so much more similar to each other compared to Romance languages. Just a few examples, I recently learned the Czech words for "newspaper" -"noviny" and "dog" - "pas" which, reading your posts, I realized are the same or nearly the same as the Serbian ones. Also "jablko" and "jabuka", "vlk" and "vuk"... the Czechs always seem to prefer the versions of the words that are harder to pronounce :)
Who knows when they will be inserted the Serbian course. As far as I know, Croatian and Serbian are separate, and not together, because I saw that Croatian course was inserted on Duolingo, but didn't contribute yet. I agree with you, all Slavic languages are similar in their own way, and the Czech language isn't easy and has the same seven cases as Serbian, but the Czech pronunciation is far heavier than Serbian and so. In addition, I maybe learn in the future Czech. I knew for these words "noviny" and "pas", and not "vlk" :)
I think the languages from Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro (all almost same, we understand each other) could be at the same platform at Duo for English as first, and vice verso, people world wide have opportunity to learn language that understand round 20.000.000 people in our region and abroad. Let's do it together, again we understand each other.