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Japanese Lesson 30: Verbs part 2

I was going to double up these lessons (and I still might) because due to the nature of Japanese verbs the reverse tree vocabulary list is cut in half for us.

However, for the next two lessons there are some grammar points I need to go in depth with... so I'm putting off the lesson merge until later lessons.

Sorry for the mini hiatus BTW.

<h1>Vocabulary</h1>

Cook: Ryouri suru: りょうり する: 料理する

Sleep: Neru: ねる: 寝る

Run: Hashiru: はしる: 走る *

  • I learned run as "Nigeru" which, for once, is incorrect in these following sentences. Because "nigeru" has the implication of running away from someone or something. Like escaping. Where as "Hashiru" is more of a relaxed run.
<h1>Grammar</h1>

So, what a lucky day for all of you. We've finally run into...

DUN DUN DUN

An irregular verb.

If you guessed it's that "Ryouri Suru" You're absolutely right! ... okay you're partially right... the "ryouri" part isn't actually a verb, it's a noun.

So I'd like to introduce you to

SURU

It's one of two common irregular verbs... the other one being "Kuru" which I will also go ahead and cover today....

Now what an Irregular Verb is, is it's a verb that doesn't follow our standard conjugation rule.

So if you thought "suru" might conjugate to "suri-" and then the stems, nope. Not today.

To conjugate Suru you take off the "ru" part, just like you would and "iru/eru" verb...

BUT

After you've removed the "ru" you change "su" to "shi" and then conjugate from there. Like this:

Present Positive: Suru → Su → Shi → Shimasu

Present negative: Suru → Su → Shi → Shimasen

Past positive: Suru → Su → Shi → Shimashita

Past negative: Suru → Su → Shi → Shimasendeshita

Command: Suru → Su → Shi → Shite

Continuing Action: Suru → Su → Shi → Shiteiru 

SURU'S DEFINITION: So, Suru means "do". It can stand alone as it's own verb, or if paired with a noun it turns that noun into a verb.

For our example's case "ryouri" is the NOUN form of cooking. Like... say your mom's good ol' home cooking. Just, basically, cooked food.

But when you add "suru" to "ryouri" you get "ryouri suru" which is the action of cooking.

Okaasan wa ryouri shimashita.
Mom cooked.

... but if you put "o" inbetween them you turn "suru" into a stand alone again and it takes the meaning "do"

Okaasan wa ryouri o shimashita.
Mom did the cooking.

More or less... you see the difference?

Pairing Suru with nouns works in some cases not all. For instance you would:
do your homework "Shukudai o shimasu"
not
homeworking "shukudai shimasu"

... though I suppose if you say the former fast enough it sounds like the "o" is missing... so it's possible you can get away with the latter......

Anyway, let's run through "Kuru" right quick.

KURU
So Kuru, like Suru, conjugates in a weird sort of way. Like "suru" you remove "ru" and then change "ku" to "ki" and work from there:

Present positive: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kimasu

Present negative: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kimasen

Past positive: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kimashita

Past negative: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kimasendeshita

Command: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kite

Continuing action: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kiteiru

KURU'S MEANING
Kuru means "come" or "arrive".

Now if you haven't already caught it, Kuru's conjugations have an exact sound-alike. That would be "kiru" (to wear). The only thing differentiating these two in conjugated form are CONTEXT and KANJI. So pay close attention to your sentences!!

Kuru = 来る → 来ます → 来ません → 来ました → 来ませんでした Kiru = 着る → 着ます → 着ません → 着ました → 着ませんでした

Kuru/kiru → Kimasu → Kimasen → Kimashita → Kimasendeshita

<h1>Sentences</h1>

I sleep
Watashi wa nemasu
わたし は ねます
私は寝ます

She runs
Kanojo wa hashirimasu
かのじょ は はしります
彼女は走ります。

You run
Anata wa hashirimasu
あなた は はしります
あなたは走ります。

She cooks
Kanojo wa ryouri shimasu.
かのじょ は りょうり します。
彼女は料理します。

He sleeps.
Kare wa nemasu.
かれ は ねます。
彼は寝ます。

I cook rice.
Watashi wa kome o ryouri shimasu.
わたし は こめ を りょうり します。
私は米を料理します。

He cooks bread.
Kare wa pan o ryouri shimasu.
かれ は パン を りょうり します。
彼はパンを料理します。

You cook fish.
Anata wa sakana o ryouri shimasu.
あなた は さかな を りょうり します。
あなたは魚を料理します。

I think that was enough fun for one lesson, don't you?

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May 6, 2015

4 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/m.tastic

30 lessons already? Nice job!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JessicaReep

I know this is old, but I just glanced at this one and noticed you used anata. While it is the correct pronoun, you shouldn't actually use it because it may make you seem arrogant.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Demon-Kiyomi

ppbbthh. Don't worry I've started putting the "Don't use pronouns unless it's absolutely necessary" note into every lesson now cuz I get this sort of comment so often.

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