Japanese Lesson 30: Verbs part 2
I was going to double up these lessons (and I still might) because due to the nature of Japanese verbs the reverse tree vocabulary list is cut in half for us.
However, for the next two lessons there are some grammar points I need to go in depth with... so I'm putting off the lesson merge until later lessons.
Sorry for the mini hiatus BTW.<h1>Vocabulary</h1>
Cook: Ryouri suru: りょうり する： 料理する
Sleep: Neru: ねる： 寝る
Run: Hashiru: はしる： 走る *
- I learned run as "Nigeru" which, for once, is incorrect in these following sentences. Because "nigeru" has the implication of running away from someone or something. Like escaping. Where as "Hashiru" is more of a relaxed run.
So, what a lucky day for all of you. We've finally run into...
DUN DUN DUN
An irregular verb.
If you guessed it's that "Ryouri Suru" You're absolutely right! ... okay you're partially right... the "ryouri" part isn't actually a verb, it's a noun.
So I'd like to introduce you to
It's one of two common irregular verbs... the other one being "Kuru" which I will also go ahead and cover today....
Now what an Irregular Verb is, is it's a verb that doesn't follow our standard conjugation rule.
So if you thought "suru" might conjugate to "suri-" and then the stems, nope. Not today.
To conjugate Suru you take off the "ru" part, just like you would and "iru/eru" verb...
After you've removed the "ru" you change "su" to "shi" and then conjugate from there. Like this:
Present Positive: Suru → Su → Shi → Shimasu
Present negative: Suru → Su → Shi → Shimasen
Past positive： Suru → Su → Shi → Shimashita
Past negative: Suru → Su → Shi → Shimasendeshita
Command: Suru → Su → Shi → Shite
Continuing Action: Suru → Su → Shi → Shiteiru
SURU'S DEFINITION: So, Suru means "do". It can stand alone as it's own verb, or if paired with a noun it turns that noun into a verb.
For our example's case "ryouri" is the NOUN form of cooking. Like... say your mom's good ol' home cooking. Just, basically, cooked food.
But when you add "suru" to "ryouri" you get "ryouri suru" which is the action of cooking.
Okaasan wa ryouri shimashita.
... but if you put "o" inbetween them you turn "suru" into a stand alone again and it takes the meaning "do"
Okaasan wa ryouri o shimashita.
Mom did the cooking.
More or less... you see the difference?
Pairing Suru with nouns works in some cases not all. For instance you would:
do your homework "Shukudai o shimasu"
homeworking "shukudai shimasu"
... though I suppose if you say the former fast enough it sounds like the "o" is missing... so it's possible you can get away with the latter......
Anyway, let's run through "Kuru" right quick.
So Kuru, like Suru, conjugates in a weird sort of way. Like "suru" you remove "ru" and then change "ku" to "ki" and work from there:
Present positive: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kimasu
Present negative: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kimasen
Past positive: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kimashita
Past negative: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kimasendeshita
Command: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kite
Continuing action: Kuru → Ku → Ki → Kiteiru
Kuru means "come" or "arrive".
Now if you haven't already caught it, Kuru's conjugations have an exact sound-alike. That would be "kiru" (to wear). The only thing differentiating these two in conjugated form are CONTEXT and KANJI. So pay close attention to your sentences!!
Kuru = 来る → 来ます → 来ません → 来ました → 来ませんでした Kiru = 着る → 着ます → 着ません → 着ました → 着ませんでした
Kuru/kiru → Kimasu → Kimasen → Kimashita → Kimasendeshita<h1>Sentences</h1>
Watashi wa nemasu
わたし は ねます
Kanojo wa hashirimasu
かのじょ は はしります
Anata wa hashirimasu
あなた は はしります
Kanojo wa ryouri shimasu.
かのじょ は りょうり します。
Kare wa nemasu.
かれ は ねます。
I cook rice.
Watashi wa kome o ryouri shimasu.
わたし は こめ を りょうり します。
He cooks bread.
Kare wa pan o ryouri shimasu.
かれ は パン を りょうり します。
You cook fish.
Anata wa sakana o ryouri shimasu.
あなた は さかな を りょうり します。
I think that was enough fun for one lesson, don't you?