The two common standard rules are ( note-yellow highlight - to point out the differences ) :
e for feminine | and
s for plural. i.e.
auteur (ms) | auteur
e (fs) | •• auteur
s (mp) | auteur
es (fp) : actor
2. When the male form ends in
e, then it is usually the same for the female form, and you add an
s for plural.
Yellow highlight will now to used to point out variations from the two common standard rules stated above.
- With most occupations, when you say a person is " a job title " you don't need an article ( un, etc ) when used with être (to be) or devenir (to become). Don't forget to read Tips and Notes !
- un agriculteur | une agricult
rice: a farmer
- un/une auteur : an author | note it does not change for feminine, masculine
- un avocat | une avocate : lawyer, barrister | collins
- un boulanger | une boulang
ère: a baker | sentence with interestings comments
according to loy4list "In the Middle Ages, French bakers would could round balls "boules" on planks in the over (before the baguette of course) hence the name, boulanger."
- une carrière (nF) : career
( remember the note above - as no masculine form is given here - the same form is used regardless of the actual gender of the person being referred to ) Il étudie pour sa carrière. : He is studying for his career. ( ie. sa : feminine possessive adjective )
- un chauffeur (nM) : driver, chauffeur ( regardless of the person - this noun is masculine. )
- un/une chef : leader | note spelling does not change for feminine, masculine
- un coiffeur | une coiffeu
sehairdresser | collins
- un cuisinier | une cuisini
ère: cook | collins
- un/une dentiste : a dentist | note spelling does not change for feminine, masculine | collins
- un docteur | une doctor
esse) : doctor | note spelling does not change for feminine, masculine when used as a title.
It doesn't change when used as a title ( Docteur en droit : Doctor of law ) or before a name ( Docteur Rose : Dr Rose ) or to address a physician ( Bonjour Docteur : Hello doctor ). The word docteur is not really used by adults. The doctors are referred to as médecin ( (no feminine form, also ,used to address a vet or a dentist), or géréraliste ( médécin généraliste = GP )
- un/une emploi : job ( no change for gender )
- enseignant : teacher
- un/une ingénieur : engineer ( no change for gender ) | collins
- un/une journaliste : journalist | note spelling does not change for feminine, masculine | collins
- un/une juge : judge | note spelling does not change for feminine, masculine
- un métier (nM) : job, trade ( note this noun is always masculine, regardless of the gender of the person. )
- un/une pédiatre : pediatrician | note spelling does not change for feminine, masculine
- un personnel | une personnel
le: personal, staff | As an adjective it means : personal, private
- une police (nF) : police, keep order.
- un policier : police officer | une polici
ère: police woman.
- un prince | - une prince
sse: prince / princess
- professeur : teacher, lecturer, professor | note, it is also acceptable to refer to a female teacher as either un professeur or une professeure ! (this is an exception)
- une retraite (nF) : retirement.
Il prend sa retraite. : He is taking retirement. - note, as retraite is feminine, you use the feminine possessive adjective of sa.
- un roi : king | une reine : queen
- un/une secrétaire : secretary.| note spelling does not change for feminine, masculine | collins
- un serveur | une serveu
se: waiter, waitress | collins
- soldat : soldier
- un travail (nM) | trav
aux(p) : work . Elle a un travail. : She has a job.
abreviations: (n) noun | (M) masculine | (F) feminine | (s) singular | (p) plural
Where a word ONLY has either (nM) or (nF), and does not list the alternate gender - then it is invariable for that gender spelling. ie - you use that spelling whether the noun it refers to is a male or a female.
Also take note the the gender and plural spelling of a noun relates to the 'subject' of the noun in the sentence, not the owner of the 'subject'. This is a bit hard for english speakers - as we instead refer it back to the owner. This is true also for the french equivalent of word like " mine | yours | etc ", but that is covered in a different skill. It is just good for us english learners of french to keep this in mind. ( ps. if someone has a better short explanation of this - please share in comments below )
Highlights are to point out spelling to watch out for - they are a little bit different to the standard.
Also check out audio french
"prince (nM) | princess (nF) : prince / princess"
=> prince (nM) | princesse (nF) : prince / princess
Well done un auteur / une auteure as well as un professeur / une professeure. un ingénieur / une ingénieure un avocat / une avocate un docteur / une doctoresse. Doesn't change when used as a title (Docteur en droit) or before a name (Docteur Schweitzer) or to adress a physician (Bonjour Docteur). The word docteur is not really used by adults. The doctors are refered to as médecin (no feminine form, also ,used to address a vet or a dentist), or géréraliste (médécin généraliste = GP) or if they are consultant, gynécologist, ophtalmologue, etc. un soldat / une soldate Keep up the good job
Have I got all your points modified above correctly ? I did not quite know what to do with : gynécologist, ophtalmologue, .... Perhaps when I look at it in a day or two - it will make sense to me. Thank you SO MUCH for contributing to my learning journey !