This is a guess so I could be wrong.
verschillende = various; this emphasizes that there are several types
verscheidene = several; this puts the emphasis more on the fact it is a multiple number, rather than focusing on the different types
Of course, this is a guess and I am likely to be wrong. If someone else comment with a different answer, I would trust that over mine.
I think verscheidene is more about the variation.
Verschillende is individual items that differ from eachother.
The noun verscheidenheid means variety/diversity. Verschillendheid is not an official woord I believe (though I did get some dictionary hits). But the noun verschil means difference.
Verschillende= different/ more than one different one/seperate ones. Verscheidene=various different ones.
It is very difficult to explain (and I believe the course has got it wrong on several occasions, I just can't explain it well in english)
Verscheidene is basicly various ones and
Verschillende is seperate different ones
Not sure you asked if verschiedene means the same as verscheidende and/or verschillende or if you thought verschillend was Dutch and verschiedene German (and that people misspelt verscheidene ) Anyway I checked and german does indeed have verschiedene this doesn't automatically mean it is used the same way as in dutch. Especially since I couldn't find a cognate for verschillende. It seems in german verschiedene has taken on the role for both.
(Translate gives verschiedene for verschillende and mehrere for verscheidene which does sound about right to me)
That is exactly what it means. In case of several different ones you can use it however. But in several sentences duo uses verschillende when it should use verscheidene. And in other cases it might be correct but will just sound weird (and indeed you would just translate with different)
There isn't. Noone said it was possesive. Dutch isn't english. This apostrophe is there to indicate the plural and without it the pronounciation would be all wrong. (This is mainly the case for loanwords, I don't think there are many native dutch words that would end in a single vowel. (Atm I can only think of opa's en oma's all others I can think of are loaned ). And I mean native in the broadest sense so even when it's loaned in the year 1300 and doesn't look like the original anymore it's still loaned. So like germanic words.)