"I like this type of shoe."
Translation:Ben bu tip ayakkabı seviyorum.
With general and abstract nouns you use accusative.
I like beer. - Birayı seviyorum. (In general sense)
I want a beer. - Bira istiyorum. (Here it's not general, it's indefinite)
However, with sevmek the situtation is a bit complicated. We usually use sevmek to ask someone if he/she would like to have something.
Bira sever misin? - Do you like beer? (Would you like to have a beer?)
So that's probably why with sevmek we are free to use accusative or not even though we have a general noun.
If I understand correctly, this is like "a cup of tea" and "a spoonful of sugar", there is no need for a suffix. Different type of compound... And "ayakkabiyi" has the accusative case because it's the definite object of the verb sevmek (although apparently it's not needed either ^^)
I've read the rest of the comments on this sentence and I'm still not satisfied.
To me it seems like the turkish word "tip" should be in the accusative here, but it's possible I'm being confused by the English translation. The thing being liked in this sentence is not "ayakkabı", but "tip", and "ayakkabı" just clarifies the "tip" of what.
So in this sentence is "tip ayakkabı" a compound noun? This would explain why "tip" doesn't get the accusative, but it's not very intuitive, and doesn't explain why there's no accusative at all.
When talking about "tipler" of things, is a "tip" always considered to be a general noun, which may not take the accusative case, even when using words like "bu" which would seem to make it a definite noun instead?
Other thoughts: this construction seems related to talking about quantities in Turkish, where we can say "bir bardak su", for instance, are the rules the same for both cases? If we wanted that specific glass of water would "o bardak su isterim" be correct? Or "o bardağı su isterim"? Or "suyun o bardağı isterim"?
I was also extremely confused :D Upon googling, it seems your last thought is correct. From Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar by Galksel, Goksel, & Kerslake. "Measure terms such as şişe 'bottle' [and] bardak 'glass' ... and type terms such as çesit/tür 'kind', tip 'type' are used the same way." So no genitive or -(s)i noun compound. [confirming what blablache said above.]
Not sure as to the second part of your question. Accusative probably is needed there since it's a specific item.
You can always use the subject pronouns, they're just optional. "Ben seviyorum" is just as correct as "seviyorum". In this sentence it's probably making the connection between "bu tip" and "ayakkabı" more clear, especially in writing. Without "ben" it could look like the subject is "bu tip" until you get to the final letters. Just a thought.