"Where am I?"
Even though "am" is omitted, under the "(omitted in Ukrainian)" part, there are two translations. One says "мені" and the other says "1-а особа теп. часу "бути"". What does this mean?
If I understand correctly, these hints are for the Ukrainians learning English.
There is a course on Duo which is the reverse of this one, Ukr->En, English for Ukrainian speakers. Reverse courses share hints. So, the first hint says "to me" (which is actually wrong, I think), and the second one says "First person present tense to be" :)
This is also a Russian letter. On my Microsoft Russian keyboard layout, it is the letter on the bottom row all the way to the left where my English z is. It really is worth it to install Microsoft keyboard layouts. There are other letters that the Russian keyboard will not have, so I installed the Ukrainian keyboard layout as well and you can assign Control + 9 or whatever number you want to them to easily switch between them. On my Ukrainian keyboard this letter is on the bottom row one to the right of the far left or where my x key is on my US keyboard hardware. http://duolingo.wikia.com/wiki/Guide_to_keyboard_layouts_and_input_methods
I'm not sure what you mean. Do you mean to ask how one can type Cyrillic symbols not having a Cyrillic keyboard? Or where it's located on the keyboard? Or what transliteration to use for "я"? (it's "ya")