What is the difference between pula and salta?
Pular is a more common way and can also mean to jump repeatedly. Saltar is sometimes used to refer to sports.
Ah. My Portuguese wife says that in Portugal, saltar is used much more regularly and they would say "O peixe salta da áqua" instead.
Can it be "from" the water?
Pula is like Jump, and Salta is like "Leap"
The phrase "fora da" is like "outside of" in English so you need both.
Can it not be "the fish jumps from the water"?
I thought da água was contracted to d'água, I've seen it written that way a few times.
Como um peixe não tem as pernas, é "jumps" a tradução verdadeira?
Alguns peixes podem pular fora da água, eles tem o nome de "Flying Fish" em Inglês - traduzindo o nome literalmente, ia ser peixe voador.
My translation "the fish jump out of the water" was marked wrong. Since "the fish" is both singular and plural, shouldn't "the fish jump" and "the fish jumps" both be acceptable?
No, because in portuguese there would be "os peixes" for plural
How would you put this into the past tense? In other cases the same form of verb seems to have been used for past and present.
O peixe pulou (para) fora da água.