Translation:The unemployed live on unemployment benefits.
Yes, though using the definite form is also quite common in Norwegian. Perhaps especially with shorter words. For me, it sounds natural to say "arbeidsledige", but "de rike" or "de eldre", for instance.
You can also just write it out as "rike [folk/mennesker]", but again this is something that'll sound more natural with some words than others.
Welfare is not the same as Unemployment Benefits. At least not in the US. One must have worked and have had money taken from their pay and put into the unemployment insurance system to receive unemployment benefits.
Welfare is government assistance. Unemployment is an insurance payout.
When I was studying Swedish at school, we were taught that often suffix -lös indicates that something positive is missing (arbetsLÖS = unemployed) and with suffix -fri it is positive that something is missing (sorgFRI = carefree). Is there anything like this in Norwegian? Arbeidsledig seems to indicate 'free of work' ...
Yes, it works the same in Norwegian with -løs and -fri. However, in this is largely based on convention; on whether the majority of society thinks something is positive or negative, rather than your personal feelings on the subject.
Å være barnløs.
To have no children.
Å ha barnefri.
To have some time to yourself, without the children present.
-ledig is less commonly used in compound words than -løs, and does not carry any negative connotations when used on its own. It then signifies that something is unoccupied, not taken.
Er dette setet ledig?
Is this seat vacant?
It depends on quite a few variables, one of which being your past earnings, but most people would be eligible for a year or more of dagpenger provided that they jump through all the necessary hoops.
You're expected to be actively seeking employment, and to accept any reasonable job offers.
Yes, of course. We have an adjective used substantively in this sentence: "The unemployed live on benefits".
In Norwegian, generalisations seem to be made with either the plural indefinite form of the noun with any adjectives that it might have (e.g. Arbeidsledige personer... or Arbeidsledigt folk...) or just the plural form of the adjective (Arbeidsledige...).
In English, generalisations are made with the plural form of the noun with any adjectives that it might have (e.g. "Unemployed people...") or the adjective with "the" in front of it (e.g. "The unemployed...").